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Exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with health abnormalities that persist in subsequent generations. However, transgenerational effects of BPA on metabolic health are not widely studied. In a maternal C57BL/6J mice (F0) exposure model using BPA doses that are relevant to human exposure levels (10 μg/kg/day, LowerB; 10 mg/kg/day, UpperB), we showed male- and dose-specific effects on pancreatic islets of the first (F1) and second generation (F2) offspring relative to controls (7% corn oil diet; control). In this study, we determined the transgenerational effects (F3) of BPA on metabolic health and pancreatic islets in our model. Adult F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring had increased body weight relative to Controls, however glucose tolerance was similar in the three groups. F3 LowerB, but not UpperB, males had reduced β-cell mass and smaller islets which was associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similar to F1 and F2 BPA male offspring, staining for markers of T-cells and macrophages (CD3 and F4/80) was increased in pancreas of F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring, which was associated with changes in cytokine levels. In contrast to F3 BPA males, LowerB and UpperB female offspring had comparable body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion as Controls. Thus, maternal BPA exposure resulted in fewer metabolic defects in F3 than F1 and F2 offspring, and these were sex- and dose-specific.
To compare combined conventional Freer medialisation and controlled synechiae, performed for middle meatal access (during the initial steps of functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and post-operative middle turbinate medialisation, with basal lamella relaxing incision, the latter of which is a single step for achieving both middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation. The study also compared the effects of controlled synechiae and basal lamella relaxing incision on post-operative olfaction.
A randomised prospective study was performed on 52 nasal cavity sides (32 patients). Only basal lamella relaxing incision was performed in one group, and both conventional medialisation and controlled synechiae were performed in the other. Intra-operative and post-operative photography was used to measure the middle meatal area. A pocket smell test was used to assess olfaction.
There were no significant differences in operative middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation of the middle turbinate. Post-operative olfaction was affected more in the combined conventional medialisation and controlled synechiae group, compared to the basal lamella relaxing incision group, but this finding was not statistically significant.
Basal lamella relaxing incision is an effective single-step technique for achieving adequate middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation, with no significant effect on olfaction.
Accelerated junctional rhythm has been reported in children in the setting of acute rheumatic fever; however, we describe a hitherto unreported case of isolated junctional tachycardia in a child with streptococcal pharyngitis, not meeting revised Jones criteria for rheumatic fever. A previously healthy, 9-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with complaints of sore throat, low-grade fever, and intermittent chest pain. She was found to have a positive rapid streptococcal antigen test. The initial electrocardiogram showed junctional tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation in addition to prolonged and aberrant atrioventricular conduction. An echocardiogram revealed normal cardiac anatomy with normal biventricular function. The patient responded to treatment with amoxicillin for streptococcal pharyngitis. The junctional tachycardia and other electrocardiogram abnormalities resolved during follow-up.
Seasonal influenza is a significant public health concern globally. While influenza vaccines are the single most effective intervention to reduce influenza morbidity and mortality, there is considerable debate surrounding the merits and consequences of repeated seasonal vaccination. Here, we describe a two-season influenza epidemic contact network model and use it to demonstrate that increasing the level of continuity in vaccination across seasons reduces the burden on public health. We show that revaccination reduces the influenza attack rate not only because it reduces the overall number of susceptible individuals, but also because it better protects highly connected individuals, who would otherwise make a disproportionately large contribution to influenza transmission. We also demonstrate that our results hold on an empirical contact network, in the presence of assortativity in vaccination status, and are robust for a range of vaccine coverage and efficacy levels. Our work contributes a population-level perspective to debates about the merits of repeated influenza vaccination and advocates for public health policy to incorporate individual vaccine histories.
This study aimed to compare the success rate of type I tympanoplasty in active (wet) and inactive (dry) mucosal chronic otitis media.
A prospective study was performed of 35 patients each with dry ear and wet ear undergoing type I tympanoplasty in the Otolaryngology Department, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, India. All patients underwent type I tympanoplasty between January 2010 and June 2011 by the post-auricular approach. Samples of the remnant tympanic membrane were sent for histopathological examination.
After a minimum follow up of one year, the success rate was 88.6 per cent for dry ears and 80 per cent for wet ears. Neither the type (p = 0.526) nor the presence (p = 0.324) of discharge influenced the success rate. Histopathological examination of the tympanic membrane margins was performed for 46 patients: of these, 19 showed evidence of vascularity and 27 did not. There was no significant difference in success rate between groups (p = 0.115).
The success rate was not influenced by the presence of ear discharge at the time of surgery, and tympanic membrane vascularity did not influence graft uptake.
Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control policy, but can suffer from several drawbacks. Seasonal influenza vaccines are prone to production problems and low efficacies, while pandemic vaccines are unlikely to be available in time to slow a rapidly spreading global outbreak. Antiviral therapy was found to be beneficial during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic even with limited use; however, antiviral use has decreased further since then. We sought to determine the role antiviral therapy can play in pandemic and seasonal influenza control using conservative estimates of antiviral efficacy, and to assess if conservative but targeted strategies could be employed to optimize the use of antivirals. Using an age-structured contact network model for an urban population, we compared the transmission-blocking ability of a conservative antiviral therapy strategy to the susceptibility-reducing effects of a robust influenza vaccine. Our results show that while antiviral therapy cannot replace a robust influenza vaccine, it can play a role in reducing attack rates and eliminating outbreaks, and could significantly reduce public health burden when vaccine is either unavailable or ineffective. We also found that antiviral therapy, by treating those who are infected, is naturally a highly optimized strategy, and need not be improved upon with expensive targeted campaigns.
Rice landraces have been developed through artificial selection imposed by farmers during the long-term domestication process. Although the global rice diversity is well characterized, few studies have conducted an in-depth analysis of genetic diversity on a local scale. In India, there are many locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic rice landraces in which the pace of improvement is slow, despite their high economic values. The aromatic and quality rice landraces of Manipur, locally called Chakhao (delicious), are important, considering their high economic and cultural values. To conserve and encourage improvement of these landraces, we collected Chakhao accessions from eight districts of Manipur. The aim of the current study was to investigate the level of genetic diversity and structure of 37 Chakhao landraces based on genotyping with 47 microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity analysis revealed high gene diversity (0.673) within the Chakhao population, with values ranging from 0.303 (Poireiton) to 0.471 (mixed Chakhao). The Chakhao rice accessions could be divided into six subgroups based on genetic structure analyses. The population structure derived from the STRUCTURE analysis largely correlated with the farmers' classification of Chakhao landraces. The results of genetic diversity analyses and the indigenous knowledge of the names and use of Chakhao landraces would facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique genetic resource.
We report an extremely rare variant of first branchial cleft anomaly.
A 15-year-old girl presented with a history of recurrent mucopurulent discharge from an opening in the left infra-auricular region, since birth. Computed tomography fistulography showed a tortuous tract measuring approximately 4.61 cm, extending anteroinferiorly and medially from the external inframeatal opening to the lateral nasopharyngeal wall (anterior to the fossa of Rosenmuller). The tract was connected to the deep lobe of the parotid gland and lay 0.67 cm anterior to the carotid artery and posterior to the medial pterygoid muscle.
This was an extremely rare variant of first branchial cleft fistula. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its type to be reported. Computed tomography fistulography is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of branchial cleft fistula, and will also assist surgical planning.
Numerous factors influence male fertility, one of these being the oxidative stress, which has elicited enormous interest recently. In sperm, induction of oxidation decreases motility and viability but increases lipid peroxidation (LPO). The optimum dose of ferrous ascorbate (FeAA: FeSO4 + ascorbic acid) for inducing oxidative stress by affecting motility, viability and LPO has been ascertained in local crossbred cattle bull spermatozoa. The fractions of spermatozoa suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate were subjected to three doses of FeAA (100 : 500, 150 : 750, 200 : 1000; μmol/l FeSO4 : μmol/l ascorbic acid). These fractions were assessed for various parameters. Increase in the incubation period and promoter concentration induced a decrease in motility and viability, but an increase in LPO. Among three doses of FeAA, 150 : 750 μmol/l ascorbic acid is suggested to be the optimum/best dose as it induces the oxidative stress/LPO to a significant extent and also maintains better motility and viability as compared with the other two doses, and such conditions may enhance the fertilising potential of bull spermatozoa.
To hypothesise the probable pathophysiological mechanism responsible for visual loss in allergic fungal sinusitis, other than direct compression.
Retrospective, non-randomised case series. Out of 274 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis, four cases with sudden visual loss were enrolled into the study. The fourth case had visual loss on the contralateral side to bony erosion of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus.
All four cases were evaluated with fungal smear, immunoglobulin (Ig) E titres, visual evoked potentials, non-contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses, and fundus examination. They then underwent endoscopic sinus debridement followed by intravenous methylprednisolone.
Improvement in vision.
All four cases experienced an improvement in vision: full recovery in three cases and partial improvement in one case.
In view of the operative, radiological and laboratory findings for case four, with the suggestion of a hyperimmune response to fungal antigens (in the form of raised IgE titre and positive fungal serology), we suggest that a local immunological reaction to fungal antigens might be responsible for the observed visual loss in cases of allergic fungal sinusitis, in addition to mechanical compression of the optic nerve.
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been implicated in inhibition of nerve regeneration in the CNS. This results from interactions between MAG and the Nogo receptor and gangliosides on the apposing axon, which generates intracellular inhibitory signals in the neuron. However, because myelin–axon signaling is bidirectional, we undertook an analysis of potential MAG-activated signaling in oligodendrocytes (OLs). In this study, we show that antibody cross-linking of MAG on the surface of OLs (to mimic axonal binding) leads to the redistribution of MAG into detergent (TX-100)-insoluble complexes, hyperphosphorylation of Fyn, dephosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in specific proteins, including lactate dehydrogenase and the β subunit of the trimeric G-protein-complex, and cleavage of α-fodrin followed by a transient depolymerization of actin. We propose that these changes are part of a signaling cascade in OLs associated with MAG function as a mediator of axon–glial communication which might have implications for the mutual regulation of the formation and stability of axons and myelin.
India is the world's dominant producer of crude Mentha arvensis oil, and exporter of its processed derivative, natural menthol. This status has been achieved through superior product price competitiveness resulting from progressive agronomic improvements that include a transition from cultivation of this mint as a semi-perennial to an annual crop. This paper describes and analyses recent developments in Indian M. arvensis cultivation.
Observations were made during 1998/99 and 1999/2000 in the fields of 295 farmers in the central Indo-Gangetic plains area. The criteria recorded included: mint cultivars used; the planting, weeding, irrigation, pesticide application and harvesting schedules; crop health in relation to diseases and pests; yields of the harvested herb and the distilled essential oil; the oil menthol content; and the net income.
Most of the farmers used the cultivar, Kosi. The performance and returns of Kosi transplanted in April had proved superior to Kosi and Shivalik suckers and to transplanted Shivalik. The returns from late-transplanted Kosi were in the range of Rupees (Rs) 25 000 to Rs 40 000 ha−1 (Rs 50≈US$1), similar to those from Kosi suckers and much higher than for both transplanted and suckers of Shivalik. This survey revealed that rotations of rice (Oryza sativa) with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and mint, and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) with wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mint could be profitable in the central Indo-Gangetic plains. They also conserved inputs and were preferable to the conventional rice-wheat rotation. A re-survey in the summer of 2002 confirmed that recommendations made to farmers have led to the adoption of the Kosi and Himalaya cultivars in 80% of the survey region and that 70% of mint cultivation in the area occurs in the summer season.
To study the humoral immune responses, safety, and tolerability of intradermal recombinant hepatitis B vaccination in healthcare workers (HCWs) nonresponsive to previous repeated intramuscular vaccination.
An open, prospective, before–after trial.
A tertiary referral hospital and surrounding district health service in Queensland, Australia.
Hospital and community HCWs nonresponsive to previous intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination.
Intradermal recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was administered every second week for a maximum of 4 doses. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) responses were assessed 2 weeks after each dose.
Protective anti-HBs levels developed in 17 (94%) of 18 study subjects. Three doses resulted in seroconversion of all responding subjects and the highest geometric mean antibody concentration. The vaccine was well tolerated.
More than 90% of previously nonresponsive HCWs responded to intradermal recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with protective anti-HBs levels.
Risk factors to prolonged fatigue syndromes (PFS) are controversial. Pre-morbid and/or current psychiatric disturbance, and/or disturbed cell-mediated immunity (CMI), have been proposed as etiologic factors. Self-report measures of fatigue and psychologic distress and three in vitro measures of CMI were collected from 124 twin pairs. Crosstwincrosstrait correlations were estimated for the complete monozygotic (MZ; 79 pairs) and dizygotic (DZ; 45 pairs) twin groups. Multivariate genetic and environmental models were fitted to explore the patterns of covariation between etiologic factors. For fatigue, the MZ correlation was more than double the DZ correlation (0.49 versus 0.16) indicating strong genetic control of familial aggregation. By contrast, for in vitro immune activation measures MZ and DZ correlations were similar (0.49–0.69 versus 0.42–0.53) indicating the etiologic role of shared environments. As small univariate associations were noted between prolonged fatigue and the in vitro immune measures (r = −0.07 to −0.12), multivariate models were fitted. Relevant etiologic factors included: a common genetic factor accounting for 48% of the variance in fatigue which also accounted for 4%, 6% and 8% reductions in immune activation; specific genetic factors for each of the in vitro immune measures; a shared environment factor influencing the three immune activation measures; and, most interestingly, unique environmental influences which increased fatigue but also increased markers of immune activation. PFS that are associated with in vitro measures of immune activation are most likely to be the consequence of current environmental rather than genetic factors. Such environmental factors could include physical agents such as infection and/or psychologic stress.
This study investigated the morphology and infectivity of fine endophyte in a mediterranean environment. Five morphological
groups of fine endophyte differing in up to 11 characters were present within two pot cultures of fine endophyte from south-
western Australia. Occurrence and abundance of a particular type of fine endophyte were not affected by the application of calcium
carbonate. It appeared that there may be more than one fungus included among the two sources of fine endophyte, however it was
not possible to separate the fungi. A second experiment demonstrated that infective propagules of fine endophyte can be very small
(<38 μm) and fresh roots acted as a potential source of infective propagules. There was no infectivity of fine endophyte in the soil
at the end of the growing season but it reoccurred in similar quantity in the next growing season.