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A disaster is a consequence of natural hazards and terrorist acts, which have significant potential to disrupt the entire wireless communication infrastructure. Therefore, the essential rescue squads and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. To provide efficient communication services, and to reduce casualty mortality and morbidity during the catastrophic events, we proposed the Tethered Balloon technology for disaster preparedness, detection, mitigation, and recovery assessment.
The proposed Tethered Balloon is applicable to any type of disaster except for storms. The Tethered Balloon is being actively researched and developed as a simple solution to improve the performance of rescues, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication in the disaster area. The most important requirement for rescue and relief teams during or after the disaster is a high quality of service of delivery communication services to save people’s lives.
Using our proposed technology, we report that the Tethered Balloon has a large disaster coverage area. Therefore, the rescue and research teams are given higher priority, and their performance significantly improved in the particular coverage area.
Tethered Balloon features made it suitable for disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. The performance of rescue and relief teams was effective and efficient before and after the disaster as well as can be continued to coordinate the relief teams until disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:222–231)
Poor auditory speech perception in geriatrics is attributable to neural de-synchronisation due to structural and degenerative changes of ageing auditory pathways. The speech-evoked auditory brainstem response may be useful for detecting alterations that cause loss of speech discrimination. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in adult and geriatric populations with normal hearing.
The auditory brainstem responses to click sounds and to a 40 ms speech sound (the Hindi phoneme |da|) were compared in 25 young adults and 25 geriatric people with normal hearing. The latencies and amplitudes of transient peaks representing neural responses to the onset, offset and sustained portions of the speech stimulus in quiet and noisy conditions were recorded.
The older group had significantly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the onset and offset responses to |da| in noisy conditions. Stimulus-to-response times were longer and the spectral amplitude of the sustained portion of the stimulus was reduced. The overall stimulus level caused significant shifts in latency across the entire speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in the older group.
The reduction in neural speech processing in older adults suggests diminished subcortical responsiveness to acoustically dynamic spectral cues. However, further investigations are needed to encode temporal cues at the brainstem level and determine their relationship to speech perception for developing a routine tool for clinical decision-making.
We have constructed radio to X-ray energy distributions for a large number of BL Lacertae objects using archival data. We find that Radio to optical spectra of RBLs and XBLs are very similar. Large differences are seen at higher frequencies where RBLs very frequently show a cutoff near the optical band while XBLs usually do not show any turnover before UV/X-ray energies. Our data is consistent with a picture where RBL and XBL are from the same parent population, the XBL simply being those (rare) objects where the break in the energy distribution is located at high energy.
To examine the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), dietary Ca intake and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A stratified cluster sample of a population aged 18–75 years from the Victorian Health Monitor survey.
Non-institutionalized adults living in private dwellings in Victoria, Australia.
Adults (n 3404) with complete data and without type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Adjusted for sociodemographic factors, physical characteristics and dietary covariates including Ca intake, every 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with decreased odds of MetS (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0·85, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·89; P<0·001). Relative to the low 25(OH)D tertile (median 33 nmol/l), there was a progressive decrease in odds of MetS that reached significance with the high 25(OH)D tertile (median 77 nmol/l; AOR=0·35, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·48; P<0·001). Every 500 mg/d increase in Ca intake adjusted for 25(OH)D did not reduce odds of MetS (AOR=0·81, 95 % CI 0·66, 1·06; P=0·141) but approached significance if unadjusted for 25(OH)D in the final model (AOR=0·81, 95 % CI 0·64, 1·02; P=0·073). No significant effect was obtained for tertiles of Ca intake. However, Ca and vitamin D tertile combinations suggested a beneficial effect of high Ca (median 1233 mg/d) only at low and medium 25(OH)D. The high 25(OH)D tertile was associated with significantly decreased odds of MetS regardless of Ca intake.
A high vitamin D status significantly reduced the odds of MetS. A high Ca intake may have a similar favourable outcome but only at lower circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D.
The membership of the Commission stands, with the election of 18 IAU members and 12 historians at the XXII GA (1994), at 155 presently (Sept. 1996). Note the increase in membership, which is 24% and which hopefully may go to 30-35% by XXIII GA (1997). The Commission has put a message on WWW for all IAU members/presidents of various commissions to join the Commission 41 in a big way, so that it can extend its scope of activities further. Besides holding a Joint Discussion of its own (No. 17), Commission 41 is co-supporting JDs 8, 20 and 23.
The membership of the Commission, as of its 50th anniversary in 1998, stands at 146 members and 19 consultants. In order to increase communications, during the report period the President issued six Newsletters to Commission members, consultants, and IAU officers. In a further attempt to increase communications, Commission 41 also instituted a web site (http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~pbrosche/iaucomm41/) in early 1998. This was largely due to the efforts of C41 Organizing Committee member Wolfgang Dick and the kindness of Professor Peter Brosche in supplying space. The site not only contains the Newsletters, meeting notices, and a list of members, but also the Bibliography on History of Astronomy, compiled by Ruth Preitag of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The site also links to the history of astronomy site maintained for several years by the History of Astronomy Working Group of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, and now also maintained on behalf of Commission 41. These sites serve not only for better communication among Commission members, but also the broader history of astronomy community.
This longitudinal study of affluent suburban youth (N = 319) tracked from 6th to 12th grade is parsed into two segments examining prospective associations concerning emotional–behavioral difficulties and academic achievement. In Part 1 of the investigation, markers of emotional–behavioral difficulty were used to cluster participants during 6th grade. Generalized estimating equations were then used to document between-cluster differences in academic competence from 6th to 12th grade. In Part 2 of the study, indicators of academic competence were used to cluster the same students during 6th grade, and generalized estimating equations were used to document between-cluster differences in emotional–behavioral difficulty from 6th to 12th grade. The results from Part 1 indicated that patterns of emotional–behavioral difficulty during 6th grade were concurrently associated with poorer grades and classroom adjustment with some group differences in the rate of change in classroom adjustment over time. In Part 2, patterns of academic competence during 6th grade were concurrently associated with less emotional–behavioral difficulty and some group differences in the rate of change in specific forms of emotional–behavioral difficulty over time. These results suggest that the youth sampled appeared relatively well adjusted and any emotional–behavioral–achievement difficulty that was evident at the start of middle school was sustained through the end of high school.
This study aimed to compare the interpretations of temporal bone computed tomography scans by an otologist and a radiologist with a special interest in temporal bone imaging. It also aimed to determine the usefulness of this imaging modality.
A head and neck radiologist and an otologist separately reported pre-operative computed tomography images using a structured proforma. The reports were then compared with operative findings to determine their accuracy and differences in interpretations.
Forty-eight patients who underwent pre-operative computed tomography scans in a 30-month period were identified. Six patients were excluded because complete operative findings had not been recorded. Positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of the anatomical and pathological findings were calculated for 42 patients by both reporters. The accuracy was found to be less than 80 per cent, except for identification of the tegmen and lateral semicircular canal erosion. Overall, there was no significant difference in interpretations of computed tomography scans between reporters. There was a slight difference in interpretation for tympanic membrane retraction, facial canal erosion and lateral semicircular canal fistula and/or erosion.
Pre-operative computed tomography scanning of the temporal bone is useful for predicting anatomy for surgical planning in patients with chronic otitis media, but its reliability remains questionable.
The Period from 1858 to 1947 is known as the British Period of Indian History. After the fall of Mughal empire, when the first war of independence against British colonisers failed in 1857, and the East India Company’s Government was transferred to the British Crown in 1858. However only in 1910, a Department of Education was established by the (British) Govt, of India and in the following decades modern universities were established in various important Indian towns, wherein Western / European type education and training with English as medium of instruction were imparted. However more than a century before, Indian scholar’s came into contact with the scholars – administrators of East India Company, either through employment or social interaction. Thereby, Indians became acquainted with the scientific (also technological) advances in Europe. A few of them visited England and other European countries, Portugal, Prance etc. already in the last quarter of 18th century, in order to experience and to learn firsthand the European sciences.
The effect of radiation on turbulent mixed convection flow, generated by two plane wall jets with different temperatures inside a cavity was studied numerically. The medium is treated as a gray, absorbing, emitting and scattering. The two-dimensional Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with the energy equation are solved by using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques, while the AKN low-Reynolds-number model is employed for computation of turbulence fluctuations. The Boussinesq approximation is used to calculate the buoyancy term, and the radiation part of the problem is solved by numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) with the well known discrete ordinate method (DOM). The governing equations are discretized by the finite volume technique into algebraic equations and solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. The effects of radiation conduction parameter, scattering albedo, optical thickness and Richardson number on the thermal behavior of the system are carried out. Results show that the gas radiation has a significant effect on the temperature distribution inside the turbulent mixed convection flow.
A systematic review was performed to evaluate the role and effectiveness of head bandages after routine elective middle-ear surgery.
Studies that compared the effectiveness of head bandage use after elective middle-ear surgery (e.g. myringoplasty, mastoidectomy and cochlear implantation) were identified using the following databases: Ovid Medline and Embase, the Ebsco collections, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Google Scholar. An initial search identified 71 articles. All titles and abstracts were reviewed. Thirteen relevant articles were inspected in more detail; of these, only five met the inclusion criteria. These included three randomised, controlled trials, one retrospective case series and one literature review.
The three randomised, controlled trials (level of evidence 1b) showed no statistically significant differences in post-operative outcomes (in terms of complications) associated with head bandage use in middle-ear surgery. This finding was supported by the retrospective case series involving patients undergoing cochlear implantation.
Current available evidence shows no advantage of head bandage use after middle-ear surgery. Head bandages may not be required after routine, uncomplicated middle-ear surgery.
There has been a surge in the popularity of loom bands amongst children in recent months. These small rubber bands, which can be woven together to make colourful bracelets and necklaces, have become the world's most popular toy. Foreign bodies in paediatric nasal and aural cavities are a common presentation to ENT units across the country. Whilst most are removed without incident, foreign bodies in nasal passages represent a potential risk for inhalation, leading to airway obstruction.
This paper reports a case series of four paediatric patients who presented with a loom band associated foreign body in the nose over a 7-day period at a district general hospital in Scotland.
Although the four cases presented were resolved without the need for general anaesthetic, the ever-soaring prevalence and popularity of loom bands necessitates a degree of caution and vigilance from parents, retailers and manufacturers alike. We believe there is an urgent need for greater public awareness of their potential hazards.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the southeast of Iran. This study aimed to predict the incidence of CCHF and its related factors and explore the possibility of developing an empirical forecast system using time-series analysis of 13 years’ data. Data from 2000 to 2012 were obtained from the Health Centre of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Climate Organization and the Veterinary Organization in the southeast of Iran. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and Markov switching models (MSM) were performed to examine the potential related factors of CCHF outbreaks. These models showed that the mean temperature (°C), accumulated rainfall (mm), maximum relative humidity (%) and legal livestock importation from Pakistan (LIP) were significantly correlated with monthly incidence of CCHF in different lags (P < 0·05). The modelling fitness was checked with data from 2013. Model assessments indicated that the MSM had better predictive ability than the SARIMA model [MSM: root mean square error (RMSE) 0·625, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) 266·33; SARIMA: RMSE 0·725, AIC 278·8]. This study shows the potential of climate indicators and LIP as predictive factors in modelling the occurrence of CCHF. Our results suggest that MSM provides more information on outbreak detection and can be a better predictive model compared to a SARIMA model for evaluation of the relationship between explanatory variables and the incidence of CCHF.
Stars twinkle because their light propagates through the atmosphere. The same phenomenon is expected when the light of remote stars crosses a Galactic—disk or halo—refractive medium such as a molecular cloud. We present the promising results of a test performed with the ESO–NTT, and consider its potential.
The January 2010 earthquake affected many services in Haiti, including health care. After the disaster, top-down response from international sources seemed like the only solution. While the existing health system was fragile, opportunities likely existed for incorporating bottom-up approaches in the capital and other cities, such as Cap Haitien in the North.
The study aims to: (1) identify available local health-related resources; (2) examine how these were, or were not, utilized in response efforts; and (3) evaluate the level of coordination among health delivery groups, particularly preparedness and recovery.
This case study included 11 key informant interviews at two hospitals (six at Justinian and five at Milot) and an organizational analysis of cooperation among 16 health-related organizations operating in northern Haiti. Disaster preparedness and recovery data for the health-sector organizations were obtained using a validated survey instrument and the Program to Analyze, Record, and Track Networks to Enhance Relationships (PARTNER) tool that uses the principles of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to elucidate the makeup of collaborative relationships.
During the response phase, command-and-control approaches from international healthcare organizations had a roll given the numbers of people affected and the overwhelmed local response capabilities. Pre-disaster vulnerabilities limited response capacity. Even during response, opportunities existed for integrating established groups. Generally, this was not a model utilized by international organizations, although some examples were present.
The external infusion of money, priorities, and forces potentially may harm the current system, rather than build upon it. International aid provides free health services beyond treatment of earthquake-related injuries, taking the place of some service functions of the Haitian system. Eventually, this could erode aspects of the Haitian health system. Alternative models of aid may better incorporate and integrate existing structures. Disaster planning is linked intrinsically to strengthening the health system as a whole.
The local structural information around the germanium atom in boron doped SiGe alloys is important in understanding the dopant diffusion mechanisms. Epitaxial SiGe test structures with B and C markers were grown on Si substrates by using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). The local structure around the Ge atom was probed using Ge K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) to determine the effects of the B and C on the Ge sites. The concentration profiles obtained from secondary ion mass spectroscopy are correlated with the Ge XAFS results. The modifications on the local structure around the Ge atoms are revealed from the multiple scattering analyses on the Ge near-neighbors. First and second shell XAFS fits to the B doped SiGe samples indicate a direct evidence of the Ge trapping of the B atoms whereas the C is randomly distributed to the Si lattice sites.
The need to accurately predict the response of structures under impact loadings has led to an interest in the mechanical properties of component materials at high rates of loading. The mechanism of cracking and its propagation play an important role in evaluation of the response of fiber reinforced concrete structures subjected to impulsive loading. In the present study, single–edge notched beams were tested under high velocity impact loads. A computer assisted instrumented Charpy test system was employed in performing the impact tests. Development and testing of a new fiber optic sensor, for the determination of internal Crack Opening Displacements (COD) in fiber reinforced concrete is described.
Recently, germanium based semiconductor device technology gained renewed interest due to new developments such as the use of high-k dielectrics for high mobility Ge MOSFETS. However, a systematic local structural investigation of clustering of dopants has been lacking in the literature. In this study, we present a detailed local structural analysis of boron and phosphorus implanted Ge wafers. We have used Ge K-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in order to probe the local structural modifications around the Ge atom under various implantation parameters and postimplantation annealing treatments. The (100) Ge wafers were implanted and with 11B+ or 31P+ using energies ranging from 20 keV to 320 keV and doses of 5×1013 to 5×1016/cm2. Pieces of the implanted wafers were subjected to thermal annealing at 400°C or 600°C for three hours in high purity nitrogen. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements on these wafers were used to correlate the dopant concentration profiles with the local structural information obtained from XAFS. B and P implanted Ge exhibit distinct responses to annealing. For the P implanted Ge samples annealing leads to recrystallization of Ge with increasing annealing temperature, but also an increase in Ge Debye-Waller factors, whereas B implanted Ge samples e×hibit recrystallization at 400°C annealing but more randomness after 600°C annealing.
As economies and firm competitive advantage are increasingly based on knowledge rather than materials, firms are moving away from traditional modes of organization in order to meet new demands for competitiveness, flexibility, speed, and novelty (Child and McGrath, 2001; Kellogg, Orlikowski, and Yates, 2006; Volberda, 1996). As part of this broader paradigm shift, an increasing number of firms have outsourced and offshored many of their in-house activities – located them to a wholly owned company or independent service provider in another country – both in order to save costs and, increasingly, to acquire new skills and capabilities not available in-house (e.g., Carmel, 1999; Lewin and Peeters, 2006). Its potential benefits notwithstanding, such disaggregation of the value chain adds an additional layer of management complexity because of the need to manage and coordinate a complex web of knowledge flows and interdependent tasks being performed by distributed teams, marked by differences in geography, skills, norms, language, culture, and interests.
Prior work has provided valuable insights into managing knowledge processes – the access, transfer, dissemination, sharing, and integration of knowledge among dispersed organizational teams (e.g., Argote et al., 2003; Gupta and Govindarajan, 2000). Scholars have emphasized the need for creating both technical compatibility (Ford et al., 2003; Montoya-Weiss et al., 2001; Oshri et al., 2008) and cultural compatibility (D'Adderio, 2001; Fiol and Connor, 2005; Tajfel, 1981) across boundaries in disaggregated value chains and dispersed social architectures.