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An essential resource for practitioners in infectious diseases and microbiology, studying for the new FRCPath Part 1 infection examination accredited by the Royal College of Pathologists, and trainees sitting the membership exams of the Royal College of Physicians. Including over 300 multiple choice questions in an exam-style Q&A format, this guide provides an invaluable revision platform for domestic and international trainees alike, with scope to present infection-based support for other medical specialties, where infection forms a core component, including intensive care. Authored by leading specialists in infectious diseases and microbiology, this invaluable training guide is the first of its kind to cover both undergraduate and postgraduate material in infectious diseases. Mapping directly from the FRCPath and RCP infection curricula, students are able to explore areas of curriculum to gain knowledge and optimise decision-making skills, under pressure.
Architected materials play an essential role in achieving next-generation electrochemical systems with unprecedented power and energy capabilities. The geometry and chemistry of architected materials can be engineered to address key areas of performance, including electrochemical kinetics and mechanics. Electrochemical kinetics impact key metrics such as power density, efficiency, and lifetime in batteries, fuel cells, and sensors. Additionally, electrochemical reactions can dramatically change material composition, which may result in large strains (in the hundreds of percent) that cause mechanical failure. In this article, we summarize advances in energy storage offered by architected materials and highlight fabrication methods used to realize these advances. We also discuss electrochemistry as an enabling tool for architected materials with functionality beyond energy storage and sensing.
This article examines two intertwined topics on architected materials with imperfections—their mechanics and optimum design. We first discuss the main factors that control defect sensitivity along with a range of strategies for defect characterization. The potency of both as-designed and as-manufactured defects on their macroscopic response is highlighted with an emphasis on those caused by additive manufacturing technology. As a natural extension of defect sensitivity, we describe the design approaches for architected materials with particular focus on systematic tools of topology optimization. Recent extensions to formally incorporate imperfections in the optimization formulation are discussed, where the ultimate goal is to generate architectures that are flaw-tolerant and perform robustly in the presence of imperfections. We conclude with an outlook on the field, highlighting potential areas of future research.
Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N = 414) from more than 40 US universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award programs and Prevention Research Centers.
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.
Understanding perceptions of family caregivers’ roles and responsibilities regarding their child with complex cardiac needs has potential to help care teams better support parents. Paternal experience has been under-explored in pediatric cardiac cohorts.
Ten fathers of children undergoing cardiac surgery completed quantitative surveys on their knowledge needs and preferred format of communication. In face-to-face recorded interviews, they responded to open-ended questions about the definition of being a good father to a child with a complex cardiac condition, perceived paternal responsibilities, personal growth as a parent to a child with a complex heart condition, support needs, and recommendations to medical staff for paternal inclusion. Semantic content analysis was utilised. The study reports strictly followed COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guidelines.
The fathers reported high preference for knowledge about the child’s heart condition, communication about the treatment plan, and desire for inclusion in the care of their child. Paternal role was defined thematically as: providing a supportive presence, being there, offering bonded insight, serving as strong provider, and acting as an informed advocate. The fathers revealed that their responsibilities sometimes conflicted as they strove to serve as an emotional and economic stabiliser for their family, while also wanting to be foundationally present for their child perioperatively.
This study provides insight into paternal experience and strategies for paternal inclusion. This summary of the self-defined experience of the fathers of pediatric cardiac patients offers constructive and specific advice for medical teams.
This commentary highlights the observation that social motivation is usually an imprecisely specified construct. We suggest four social motivation conceptualizations across levels of analysis and explore where the target article situates among these. We then offer theoretical and practical guidance for operationalization and measurement of social motivation to support more comprehensive future research on this complex construct in the autism literature.
The Hooks et al. review of microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) literature provides a constructive criticism of the general approaches encompassing MGB research. This commentary extends their review by: (a) highlighting capabilities of advanced systems-biology “-omics” techniques for microbiome research and (b) recommending that combining these high-resolution techniques with intervention-based experimental design may be the path forward for future MGB research.
To sustainably improve cleaning of high-touch surfaces (HTSs) in acute-care hospitals using a multimodal approach to education, reduction of barriers to cleaning, and culture change for environmental services workers.
The study was conducted in 2 academic acute-care hospitals, 2 community hospitals, and an academic pediatric and women’s hospital.
Frontline environmental services workers.
A 5-module educational program, using principles of adult learning theory, was developed and presented to environmental services workers. Audience response system (ARS), videos, demonstrations, role playing, and graphics were used to illustrate concepts of and the rationale for infection prevention strategies. Topics included hand hygiene, isolation precautions, personal protective equipment (PPE), cleaning protocols, and strategies to overcome barriers. Program evaluation included ARS questions, written evaluations, and objective assessments of occupied patient room cleaning. Changes in hospital-onset C. difficile infection (CDI) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia were evaluated.
On average, 357 environmental service workers participated in each module. Most (93%) rated the presentations as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ and agreed that they were useful (95%), reported that they were more comfortable donning/doffing PPE (91%) and performing hand hygiene (96%) and better understood the importance of disinfecting HTSs (96%) after the program. The frequency of cleaning individual HTSs in occupied rooms increased from 26% to 62% (P < .001) following the intervention. Improvement was sustained 1-year post intervention (P < .001). A significant decrease in CDI was associated with the program.
A novel program that addressed environmental services workers’ knowledge gaps, challenges, and barriers was well received and appeared to result in learning, behavior change, and sustained improvements in cleaning.
One new genus of Inocelliidae (Raphidioptera) with one new species and one undetermined specimen is described from the Eocene of North America: Paraksenocellia borealisnew genus, new species from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Okanagan Highlands shale at Driftwood Canyon, British Columbia, Canada (a forewing), and Paraksenocellia species from the middle Eocene (Lutetian) of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana, United States of America (a hind wing). These are the oldest records of the family. The new genus possesses many character states that are rare in Inocelliidae, e.g., a very long pterostigma extending to ScP in both the forewings and hind wings; the forewing subcostal space has three crossveins; the forewing and hind wing AA1 are deeply forked; the crossvein between CuA and CuP is located far distad the crossvein 1r-m. Paraksenocellia is confidently a member of the Inocelliidae, as it possesses a proximal shift of the basal crossvein 1r-m (connecting R and M) in the forewing and the loss of the basal crossvein 1r-m in the hind wing, both apomorphies of the family. It shares some character states with the Mesozoic Mesoraphidiidae, which we consider to be mostly stem-group plesiomorphies.
Immune system markers may predict affective disorder treatment response, but whether an overall immune system marker predicts bipolar disorder treatment effect is unclear.
Bipolar CHOICE (N = 482) and LiTMUS (N = 283) were similar comparative effectiveness trials treating patients with bipolar disorder for 24 weeks with four different treatment arms (standard-dose lithium, quetiapine, moderate-dose lithium plus optimised personalised treatment (OPT) and OPT without lithium). We performed secondary mixed effects linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking and body mass index to investigate relationships between pre-treatment white blood cell (WBC) levels and clinical global impression scale (CGI) response.
Compared to participants with WBC counts of 4.5–10 × 109/l, participants with WBC < 4.5 or WBC ≥ 10 showed similar improvement within each specific treatment arm and in gender-stratified analyses.
An overall immune system marker did not predict differential treatment response to four different treatment approaches for bipolar disorder all lasting 24 weeks.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
In 2008, four decades since Meldgaard's work at Alarniq—the type site for Dorset culture—Savelle and Dyke returned to resurvey the site. Archaeological investigations continued in 2015 and 2017 as part of the Foxe Basin Archaeological Project, when Howse conducted further surveys, excavated six semi-subterranean dwellings and two associated middens, and tested five additional features. The new site map and radiocarbon sequence have significantly changed our understanding of site use and beach-level chronology at Alarniq. The number of dwellings varies across the beach ridges, suggesting populations fluctuated throughout the site's use (2,700–800 cal BP). However, the new radiocarbon analyses also indicate that dwellings between 14.5 and 21.5 m above sea level are the same general age and that paleodemography at Alarniq is less straightforward than suggested by the number of features per beach ridge. It appears that ideal house construction location is a stronger indicator of the placement of winter houses at the site than proximity to the shoreline. We suggest this is largely related to site seasonality. These new data have significant implications for our understanding of current Dorset artifact typologies that have largely been developed using the material Meldgaard recovered at the site.
Human Stampedes (HS) occur at religious mass gatherings. Religious events have a higher rate of morbidity and mortality than other events that experience HS. This study is a subset analysis of religious event HS data regarding the physics principles involved in HS, and the associated event morbidity and mortality.
To analyze reports of religious HS to determine the initiating physics principles and associated morbidity and mortality.
Thirty-four reports of religious HS were analyzed to find shared variables. Thirty-three (97.1%) were written media reports with photographic, drawn, or video documentation. 29 (85.3%) cited footage/photographs and 1 (2.9%) was not associated with visual evidence. Descriptive phrases associated with physics principles contributing to the onset of HS and morbidity data were extracted and analyzed to evaluate frequency before, during, and after events.
34 (39.1%) reports of HS found in the literature review were associated with religious HS. Of these, 83% were found to take place in an open space, and 82.3% were associated with population density changes. 82.3% of events were associated with architectural nozzles (small streets, alleys, etc). 100% were found to have loss of XY-axis motion and 89% reached an average velocity of zero. 100% had loss of proxemics and 91% had associated Z-axis displacement (falls). Minimum reported attendance for a religious HS was 3000. 100% of religious HS had reported mortality at the event and 56% with further associated morbidity.
HS are deadly events at religious mass gatherings. Religious events are often recurring, planned gatherings in specific geographic locations. They are frequently associated with an increase in population density, loss of proxemics and velocity, followed by Z-axis displacements, leading to injury and death. This is frequently due to architectural nozzles, which those organizing religious mass gatherings can predict and utilize to mitigate future events.
Introduction: Very low concentrations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin can rule-out myocardial infarction (MI) at ED arrival in patients with chest pain. However, this single troponin rule-out strategy works poorly in patients with renal impairment and elevated baseline troponin levels. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a troponin adjustment strategy to accurately rule-out MI with a single hs-cTnTmeasurement in patients with kidney dysfunction. Methods: We used data from three cohorts of ED chest pain patients to develop an adjustment score for a high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay in patients with kidney dysfunction. The derivation cohort (n = 8846) used administrative and registry data. Two validation cohorts (n = 1187 and 1092) were prospectively-collected. The score assigned points for increasing hs-cTnT levels and subtracted points for lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In the derivation cohort, hs-cTnT concentrations achieving 98.5% sensitivity in of patients with eGFR ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29 and <15 were assigned ascending positive integer values. Negative integer values were assigned to eGFR values 45-59, 30-44, 15-29 and <15. The scpres for troponin and eGFR were summed for each patient, with scores ranging from −4 to +5. The proportion of patients with 7-day MI ruled out by a score ≤0, sensitivity, NPV, negative likelihood ratio (LR-) and area under the curve (AUC) were quantified in each study cohort. Results: The derivation and validation cohorts had 7-day MI rates of 5.7, 8.6 and 9.1%. In the derivation cohort, a score ≤0 ruled out MI in 35% of patients, with a sensitivity for 7-day MI of 99.5% (95% CI 98-100), NPV of 99.9% (95% CI 98.4-99.9), LR- of 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.05) and AUC of 0.88. In the first validation cohort, a score ≤0 ruled out MI in 45% of patients, with a sensitivity for 7-day MI of 97% (95% CI 90-100%), NPV of 99% (95% CI 98-100%), LR- 0.06 (0.02-0.18) and AUC of 0.89. In the second validation cohort, a score ≤0 ruled out MI in 20% of patients, with a sensitivity for 7-day MI of 96% (95% CI 93-99%), NPV of 98% (95% CI 96-100%), LR- of 0.16 (95% CI 0.07-0.39) and AUC of 0.78. Conclusion: We developed and validated a simple scoring system to adjust hs-cTnT concentrations for a patient's kidney function that enables MI to be ruled out in a large proportion of chest pain patients using a single measurement on ED presentation.
The second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) – a nationwide, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey - was initiated in 2016 with the intent of tracking the state of mental health of the general population in Singapore. The study employed the same methodology as the first survey initiated in 2010. The SMHS 2016 aimed to (i) establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) (which included alcohol abuse and dependence) and (ii) compare the prevalence of these disorders with reference to data from the SMHS 2010.
Door-to-door household surveys were conducted with adult Singapore residents aged 18 years and above from 2016 to 2018 (n = 6126) which yielded a response rate of 69.0%. The subjects were randomly selected using a disproportionate stratified sampling method and assessed using World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI 3.0). The diagnoses of lifetime and 12-month selected mental disorders including MDD, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, GAD, OCD, and AUD (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence), were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria.
The lifetime prevalence of at least one mood, anxiety or alcohol use disorder was 13.9% in the adult population. MDD had the highest lifetime prevalence (6.3%) followed by alcohol abuse (4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV mental disorders was 6.5%. OCD had the highest 12-month prevalence (2.9%) followed by MDD (2.3%). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders assessed in SMHS 2016 (13.8% and 6.4%) was significantly higher than that in SMHS 2010 (12.0% and 4.4%). A significant increase was observed in the prevalence of lifetime GAD (0.9% to 1.6%) and alcohol abuse (3.1% to 4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of GAD (0.8% vs. 0.4%) and OCD (2.9% vs. 1.1%) was significantly higher in SMHS 2016 as compared to SMHS 2010.
The high prevalence of OCD and the increase across the two surveys needs to be tackled at a population level both in terms of creating awareness of the disorder and the need for early treatment. Youth emerge as a vulnerable group who are more likely to be associated with mental disorders and thus targeted interventions in this group with a focus on youth friendly and accessible care centres may lead to earlier detection and treatment of mental disorders.