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Ag deposition-based multicolor electrochromic (EC) device we reported can switch various optical states among transparent, black, silver, cyan, magenta, and yellow by only using electrochemical deposition of Ag. However, the EC device had poor color retention property under open-circuit state because of dissolution of deposited Ag metal by Cu2+ ions, which is essential because it acts as redox material at counter electrode. Here, we introduced an anion exchange membrane to separate Cu2+ from the Ag deposit. The improved device achieved longer retention time of colored state. It is effective to maintain the coloring state without electric power for practical application.
Uncertainty about the H+ buffering capacity in tropical rain forest limits our ability to predict the future effect of anthropogenic deposition on the streamwater chemistry. Export of major ions to the stream and the ion-fluxes via rainfall, throughfall, litter-leachate and soil-water pathways were observed to examine the source of streamwater nutrients in a small catchment in Sabah, Malaysia. The streamwater and the ion-fluxes were measured for 3.75 and 2 y, respectively, by collecting water twice a month and setting ion-exchange-resin columns. Streamwater pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.6 and was not sensitive to water discharge controlling base cations. The NO3−-N, Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes were low in atmospheric depositions (0.6, 0.5 and 0.3 kg ha−1 y−1, respectively) and markedly increased in the litter layer. The NO3−-N flux decreased drastically from subsoil (70 kg ha−1 y−1) to the stream (1.4 kg ha−1 y−1) whereas the Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes were not different between subsoil (38 and 18 kg ha−1 y−1) and stream (30 and 15 kg ha−1 y−1). Neutral pH in tropical streams was mainly due to the base cation leaching with deep chemical weathering in deeper strata, and a rapid decrease in NO3− leaching from the subsoil to the stream.
We are carrying out near-infrared spectroscopy of Cepheids in the Galactic nuclear disk. The H-band spectra taken with SUBARU/IRCS indicate that their kinematics are consistent with the rotation of the nuclear disk.
We study the initial value problem for the drift-diffusion model arising in semiconductor
device simulation and plasma physics. We show that the corresponding stationary problem in
the whole space ℝn admits a unique stationary solution in a
general situation. Moreover, it is proved that when n ≥ 3, a unique
solution to the initial value problem exists globally in time and converges to the
corresponding stationary solution as time tends to infinity, provided that the amplitude
of the stationary solution and the initial perturbation are suitably small. Also, we show
the sharp decay estimate for the perturbation. The stability proof is based on the time
weighted Lp energy method.
Grain growth depending on strain is generally observed during structural superplasticity. A new deformation model is proposed in order to explain this grain growth.
This model is based on grain switching by Ashby and Verrall. The modification is to introduce grain size irregularity. The grain structure with minimum irregularity consists of one 5–7 pair in hexagonal array, which corresponds to edge dislocation. While the tensile stress oblique to the pair results the grain switching described by dislocation glide, the stress parallel to it results the grain switching which transforms the pentagon into the quadrilateral and then removes it. The latter can be described by dislocation climb and results the enhancement of grain growth. The expansion into three dimensions is discussed.
The effect of grain boundary (GB) and matrix precipitates on high temperature strength was investigated in Fe3Al base alloys containing Cr, Mo and C. Tensile tests were conducted at 600°C for three types of microstructures consisting of: (I) film-like κ phase precipitates covering GBs and fine M2C particles in the matrix, (II) only fine M2C particles in the matrix and (III) no second-phase particles in the matrix. It was found that κ films on GBs are more than twice as effective as finely dispersed M2C particles for improving the proof stress.
The thermoelectric (TE) properties, such as the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities, and the output power, of Sb-doped n-type Mg2Si were studied. A commercial polycrystalline source was used for the source material for the Mg2Si. TE elements with Ni electrodes were fabricated by using a monobloc plasma-activated sintering (PAS) technique. Compared with undoped samples, the ZT values of the Sb-doped samples were higher over the whole temperature range in which measurements were made; the maximum value for the Sb doped Mg2Si was 0.72 at 864 K. The TE characteristics of Sb-doped samples were found to be comparable to those of Bi-doped ones, and no significant difference in ZT value was observed between them. Provisional results showed that the maximum value of the output power was 6.75 mW for the undoped sample, 4.55 mW for a 0.5 at% Sb doped sample, and 5.25 mW for a 1 at% Sb doped sample with ΔT = 500 K (between 873 K and 373 K).
β–BaB2O4 (β-BBO) films with the (00l) preferred orientation were successfully fabricated on Si(100) and fused quartz substrates by the chemical solution deposition technique. The films were characterized by x-ray diffractometry in out-of-plane and in-plane geometry, reciprocal space mapping, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of orientation of the films is as high as 95% and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve for the films is as low as 2.9°. The films have a mosaic structure. The (00l) planes of some of the crystallites tilt to the substrate and the in-plane orientation of each crystallite is random. The size of each crystallite is 0.5–1.5 μm, and crystallite thickness is equal to the film thickness. The degree of orientation of the films increases and the FWHM of rocking curve for the films decreases with increasing film thickness. The thicker the films are, the larger the crystallite size and the more definite the crystallite boundaries are. These phenomena are thought to be closely related with the increase in internal stress with film thickness. The films irradiated by Nd3+: YAG laser light generated second harmonic wave.
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