Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of the fly ash Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technologies was performed. A rutile (TiO2) internal standard was used to enable quantitation of the glass content, which ranged from 65% to 78% by weight. The GSAS Rietveld code was employed. Precision was obtained by performing six replicates of an analysis, and accuracy was estimated using mixtures of fly ash crystalline phases and an amorphous phase. The three low-calcium (ASTM Class F) fly ashes (SRM 1633b, 2689 and 2690) contained four crystalline phases: quartz, mullite, hematite, and magnetite. SRM 1633b also contained a detectable level of gypsum, which is not common for this type of fly ash. The high-calcium (ASTM Class C) fly ash, SRM 2691, had eleven crystalline phases and presented a challenge for the version of GSAS employed, which permits refinement of only nine crystalline phases. A method of analyzing different groups of nine phases and averaging the results was developed, and tested satisfactorily with an eleven-phase simulated fly ash. The results were compared to reference intensity ratio method semiquantitative analyses reported for most of these SRMs a decade ago.