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We report the breeding success of four species of burrow-nesting petrels at sub-Antarctic Marion Island where house mice Mus musculus are the sole introduced mammal. Feral cats Felis catus were present on Marion for four decades from 1949, killing millions of seabirds and greatly reducing petrel populations. Cats were eradicated by 1991, but petrel populations have shown only marginal recoveries. We hypothesize that mice are suppressing their recovery through depredation of petrel eggs and chicks. Breeding success for winter breeders (grey petrels Procellaria cinerea (34±21%) and great-winged petrels Pterodroma macroptera (52±7%)) were lower than for summer breeders (blue petrels Halobaena caerulea (61±6%) and white-chinned petrels Procellaria aequinoctialis (59±6%)) and among winter breeders most chick fatalities were of small chicks up to 14 days old. We assessed the extent of mouse predation by monitoring the inside of 55 burrow chambers with video surveillance cameras (4024 film days from 2012–16) and recorded fatal attacks on grey (3/18 nests filmed, 17%) and great-winged petrel chicks (1/19, 5%). Our results show that burrow-nesting petrels are at risk from mouse predation, providing further motivation for the eradication of mice from Marion Island.
Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comprehensive resource for graduate students, researchers and practitioners who design, manage or use X-ray facilities.
X-rays produced when highly relativistic electrons are accelerated along a curved trajectory, generally referred to as synchrotron radiation, have served as an important tool for studying the structure and dynamics of various atomic and molecular systems. The first dedicated synchrotron radiation facility was built in the 1970s using an electron storage ring, and since that time the demand for synchrotron radiation has steadily increased due to its high intensity, narrow angular opening, and broad spectral coverage. Over the past few decades the effectiveness of synchrotron radiation has been further advanced by improvements in storage ring design that led to an increase in the electron beam phase space density, and by the use of magnetic devices such as undulators that dramatically increase the X-ray brightness over traditional bending magnets. These developments have widened and deepened the reach of “photon sciences” around the globe.
Another revolutionary advance in X-ray generation was made with the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). The radiation produced in an FEL acts back on the electron beam in a positive feedback loop, resulting in X-rays with dramatically improved intensity and coherence over those produced with storage-ring based sources. The X-ray FEL became feasible thanks to improvements in linear accelerator technology in general, and in particular to advances in the injector (electron source).
High-brightness, high-energy electron beams from a linear accelerator can now drive a high-gain X-ray FEL amplifier in a long undulator. The gain can be so high that the initially incoherent undulator radiation evolves to an intense, quasi-coherent field known as self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The SASE pulse can be made ultrashort by using an ultrashort electron bunch. With X-ray FELs, experimental techniques developed for traditional synchrotron light sources can be made much more efficient, and new areas of material, chemistry, and biology research, such as ultrafast dynamics, have become accessible to study.
In this chapter we delve more deeply into the 1D theory of the FEL. The 1D picture is sufficient to understand how an FEL works, since the essential FEL physics is longitudinal in nature. A free-electron laser acts as a linear amplifier in the small signal regime, and we will find that it is most easily analyzed theoretically in the frequency representation. Hence, we begin this section by deriving the Klimontovich equation describing the electron beam in the frequency domain, to which we add the Maxwell equation (3.68). We then apply these equations to the small-gain limit in Section 4.2, finding solutions that generalize those of Section 3.3. We then turn our attention to the high-gain FEL in Section 4.3, showing how the linearized FEL equations can be solved for arbitrary initial conditions using the Laplace transform. In particular, Section 4.3 covers self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in some detail, because SASE provides the simplest way to produce intense X-rays. We derive the basic properties of SASE in the frequency domain, including its initialization from the fluctuations in the electron beam density (shot noise), its exponential gain, and its spectral properties. We then connect our analysis to the time domain picture via Fourier transformation, which helps complete the characterization of SASE's fluctuation properties. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the FEL gain saturates in Section 4.4. We derive a quasilinear theory that describes the decrease in gain associated with an increase in electron beam energy spread, and show qualitatively how this is related to particle trapping. We also discuss tapering the undulator strength parameter after saturation to further extract radiation energy from the electron beam. Finally, we make a few comments on superradiance, focusing on the superradiant FEL solution associated with particle trapping that can support powers in excess of the usual FEL saturation power.
This chapter provides a somewhat qualitative introduction to free-electron laser physics. After a brief introduction to how FELs fit in with other sources of coherent radiation and how FEL amplification can work, we derive in Section 3.2 the 1D equations of motion for the electrons in an FEL. We find that the electrons move in a pendulum-type potential formed by the transverse undulator and radiation fields. We then discuss the FEL particle dynamics in the limit that the gain is small in Section 3.3, for which we can approximate the electric field as constant so that we do not need Maxwell's equations; this regime of operation is most suited to oscillator FELs that we cover in more detail in Chapter 7.We compute the FEL gain in the small-signal limit, and qualitatively describe the FEL when the radiation power is large. In Section 3.4 we include the self-consistent evolution of the radiation, which extends our equations to include high-gain FELs that experience exponential gain. We show how the basic physics of small signal gain and exponential growth can be derived in terms of three collective variables, and how the FEL Pierce parameter ρ plays a central role in determining the output characteristics. Finally, we make a brief introduction to self-amplified spontaneous radiation, which we will describe more thoroughly in Chapter 4.
Coherent Radiation Sources
Powerful, coherent sources are familiar for wavelengths longer than 1 mm – the microwave devices – and also for wavelengths between a few microns and approximately 0.1 μm – lasers based on atomic and molecular transitions. Microwave devices (including magnetrons, klystrons, and, increasingly, solid-state devices) have found numerous applications including radar, accelerating structures, and food preparation. The applications of lasers operating in the IR, visible, and near UV are incredibly numerous and diverse: uses vary from precise measurements of time and distance to cutting and etching on both large and nano-scales to addressing single atoms for quantum computing.