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This chapter provides resources and best-practice guidelines for planning interventions that have broad application to behaviors of everyday living. An overview of the theory and context for why planning is important to behavior change with a focus on current evidence is provided. Key definitions and research evidence of various planning concepts and techniques – action and preparatory planning, implementations intentions, and coping planning – are outlined. Subsequently, instructions are provided on how people can formulate effective planning interventions with examples of behaviors from various relevant prosocial, health, academic, and business contexts. Finally, current evidence and theory are provided with guidance on the types of planning interventions that may work in specific contexts and conditions, and on the moderators that may influence the effectiveness of each approach. Each section includes further details that are provided with worked examples of resources to use based on prior research and various modes of delivery (e.g., face-to-face, website, wearable devices).
This chapter provides an overview of the use of affect-based interventions to change behavior. Affect is defined in terms of affect proper and affect processing; both of these terms are used regularly in research on affect interventions. The evidence of direct modification of these affect constructs is then reviewed. Based on this evidence, step-by-step guides to techniques focusing on changing two key aspects of affective processing are provided: changing affective attitudes and anticipated affect. The guides to these techniques include typical means of delivery, target audience, behaviors, enabling or inhibiting factors, training and skills required, intensiveness, typical materials needed, and typical examples of implementation. In addition, application of implementation intentions, fear appeals, evaluative conditioning, and exercise games as other ways to change affect as a means to changing behavior are reviewed. Finally, two additional intervention pathways that could have impact on behavior change are reviewed: direct modification of other sources of behavioral influence (e.g., traditional social cognitive factors) in order to overcompensate for the impact of affect and self-regulation of the intensity of the affect experience as a means of inhibiting its impact.
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