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This study investigates mood choice for five Acadian French communities in Atlantic Canada which have intertwined settlement histories but which differ in terms of type and degree of dialect contact. The two communities with least contact with supralocal French preserve the highly salient imperfect subjunctive, moribund or absent from most other present-day spoken French varieties. While four communities exhibit high selection rates for the present subjunctive, in line with variationist analyses of other French varieties, one community has surprisingly low rates of such usage, along with absence of the imperfect subjunctive. This dichotomy is explained by the local prestige of the smaller of two founder groups for the community, settlers from Haute-Bretagne, France, a dialect area for which the historical record reveals low levels of subjunctive forms. The results highlight the importance not only of demographic factors but also of local identity construction in the formation of new contact varieties.
Long-term unemployment can negatively impact health and well-being, and is a central focus of governments seeking to address poverty and social exclusion. Little is known about how individuals experience programmes aimed at addressing long-term unemployment and consequently the client-centred indicators of ‘success’. In-depth interviews were carried out with 31 long-term unemployed individuals engaged in a ‘life-first’ programme integrating vocational assistance with intensive personal strengths-based support. The participants in this programme faced multiple disadvantages including employment and educational barriers as well as a range of significant personal issues. They equated successful outcomes in the programme with receiving a wealth of psychosocial and practical assistance in addition to vocational support, and having a case manager who approached these issues as a whole. Findings suggest that, in order to provide the best chance of gaining and maintaining employment, programmes should address, in tandem, personal and vocational barriers facing those who are long-term unemployed.
In England, Local Authorities (LAs) contribute to the care home fees of two-thirds of care home residents aged 65+ who pass a means test. LAs typically pay fees below those faced by residents excluded from state support. Most proposals for reform of the means test would increase the proportion of residents entitled to state support. If care homes receive the LA fee for more residents, they might increase fees for any remaining self-funders. Alternatively, the LA fee might have to rise. We use two linked simulation models to examine how alternative assumptions on post-reform fees affect projected public costs and financial gains to residents of three potential reforms to the means test. Raising the LA fee rate to maintain income per resident would increase the projected public cost of the reforms by between 22% and 72% in the base year. It would reduce the average gain to care home residents by between 8% and 12%. Raising post-reform fees for remaining self-funders or requiring pre-reform self-funders to meet the difference between the LA and self-funder fees, reduces the gains to residents by 28–37%. For one reform, residents in the highest income quintile would face losses if the self-funder fee rises.
Effective preparedness, response, and recovery from disasters require a well-planned, integrated effort with experienced professionals who can apply specialized knowledge and skills in critical situations. While some professionals are trained for this, others may lack the critical knowledge and experience needed to effectively perform under stressful disaster conditions. A set of clear, concise, and precise training standards that may be used to ensure workforce competency in such situations has been developed. The competency set has been defined by a broad and diverse set of leaders in the field and like-minded professionals through a series of Web-based surveys and expert working group meetings. The results may provide a useful starting point for delineating expected competency levels of health professionals in disaster medicine and public health.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:44–52)
This study investigates the expression of past temporal reference in a highly conservative variety of Acadian French spoken in the Baie Sainte-Marie region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Variationist analysis of data from a sociolinguistic corpus for the village of Grosses Coques reveals a split between narrative and conversational discourse, with variation mainly between use of the passé simple and the imparfait in the former and between the passé composé and the imparfait in the latter. The passé simple remains in robust use in this variety and is constrained in a manner similar to that found in 17th-century representations of colloquial speech involving narration.
This article is concerned with the role of media representations of language use in the promotion of language ideologies and in identity construction. It focuses on media representations of Chiac, a traditionally low-status variety of Acadian French. We consider performances of this variety in the adventures of an animated superhero, Acadieman, presented in a cable TV show running on Rogers TV from 2005 to 2009. We first contextualize Acadieman in terms of the linguistic and cultural contexts in which Chiac is spoken. We then consider how particular social meanings are created through contrasts between Chiac-speaking characters and speakers of other varieties. While the juxtaposition of varieties is at one level quite humorous, on another level it draws on complex indexicalities and valorizes the local variety and, by extension, its speakers. Finally, we argue that the Acadieman phenomenon provides a discursive space within which present-day Acadian identities can be negotiated.
There is evidence that the prevalence of common mental disorders varies
To compare prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice
attendees in six European countries.
Unselected attendees to general practices in the UK, Spain, Portugal,
Slovenia, Estonia and The Netherlands were assessed for major depression,
panic syndrome and other anxiety syndrome. Prevalence of DSM–IV major
depression, other anxiety syndrome and panic syndrome was compared
between the UK and other countries after taking account of differences in
demographic factors and practice consultation rates.
Prevalence was estimated in 2344 men and 4865 women. The highest
prevalence for all disorders occurred in the UK and Spain, and lowest in
Slovenia and The Netherlands. Men aged 30–50 and women aged 18–30 had the
highest prevalence of major depression; men aged 40–60 had the highest
prevalence of anxiety, and men and women aged 40–50 had the highest
prevalence of panic syndrome. Demographic factors accounted for the
variance between the UK and Spain but otherwise had little impact on the
significance of observed country differences.
These results add to the evidence for real differences between European
countries in prevalence of psychological disorders and show that the
burden of care on general practitioners varies markedly between
We examine the evolution and current use of the French discourse marker mais dame, whose usage was first attested in Metropolitan French early in the 19th century. This expression has since fallen into disuse, to the point that many present-day Metropolitan French speakers do not even know it. We first determine the discourse functions of mais dame in literary texts (comedies and farces) from the 19th century. We then consider the use of mais dame in naturally occurring discourse, from conversational and narrative discourse with Newfoundland Franco-Acadians—descendants in part of 19th-century immigrants from France who speak a conservative variety of the language — who use the marker frequently. We find that the 19th-century literary usages anticipate the use of mais dame in Newfoundland French. Moreover, we show that mais dame plays an important role as an evaluative marker in oral narration.
Using two linked simulation models, we examine the public expenditure costs and distributional effects of potential reforms to long-term care funding in the UK. Changes to the means tests for user contributions to care costs are compared with options for the abolition of these means tests (‘free’ personal care). The latter generally cost more than the former and benefit higher income groups more than those on lower incomes (measuring income in relation to the age-specific income distribution). Reforms to the means tests target benefits towards those on lower incomes. However, the highest income group are net losers if free personal care is financed by a higher tax rate on higher incomes and the effect on the whole population considered.
In Atlantic Canada Acadian communities, definite on
is in competition with the traditional vernacular variant
je…ons (e.g., on parle vs. je parlons
“we speak”), with the latter variant stable only in
isolated communities, but losing ground in communities in which there
is substantial contact with external varieties of French. We analyze
the distribution of the two variants in two Prince Edward Island
communities that differ in terms of amount of such contact. The results
of earlier studies of Acadian French are confirmed in that
je…ons usage remains robust in the more isolated
community but is much lower in the less isolated one. However, in the
latter community, the declining variant, while accounting for less than
20% of tokens for the variable, has not faded away. Although it is not
used at all by some speakers, it is actually the variant of choice for
others, and for still other speakers, it has taken on a particular
discourse function, that of indexing narration. Comparison with
variation in the third-person plural, in which a traditional variant is
also in competition with an external variant, shows that the decline of
je…ons is linked to its greater saliency, making it a
prime candidate for social reevaluation.An earlier version of this article was presented at
UKLVC-3, held in July 2001 at the University of York, U.K. We thank
audience members for comments. We also thank Raymond Mougeon, along
with this journal's anonymous referees, for useful comments on an
earlier written version. The research was funded by standard research
grants awarded to King and Nadasdi by the Social Sciences and
Humanities Research Council of Canada.
To examine associations of biomarkers of nutrient intake with overall diet quality.
A convenience sample of 102 healthy postmenopausal women in Seattle, Washington (USA).
Design and method:
Participants attended a study centre where they provided fasting blood specimens and completed a 122-item validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data from the FFQ were used to calculate Diet Quality Index (DQI) scores and categorise women as having diets of excellent, good, fair or poor quality. The blood specimens were analysed for nine phospholipid fatty acids (as percentage of total) and serum concentrations of vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, vitamin B12, folate and six carotenoids. Multivariate linear regression was used to model associations of the nutrient biomarkers with DQI scores.
Compared with women with poor-quality diets, women with excellent diets, as measured by the DQI, had higher plasma concentrations of vitamin C (P for trend = 0.01), α-tocopherol (P for trend = 0.02) and β-cryptoxanthin (P for trend = 0.03). Women with excellent diets also had lower proportions of plasma phospholipid fatty acids of two potentially atherogenic fatty acids: stearic acid (P for trend = 0.01) and behenic acid (P for trend = 0.03). A group of six biomarkers explained a moderate proportion of the total variability in DQI scores (36%).
These objective measures of dietary intake support the use of the DQI as a useful tool to measure dietary patterns.
Our article presents a variationist analysis of future verb forms in Acadian French. The main variants considered are the inflected future (e.g. je partirai) and the periphrastic future (e.g. je vais partir). The purpose of this study is two-fold: a) it will determine the distribution of these variants and their linguistic correlates; b) it will compare the use of future verb forms with other varieties of French. Our results reveal that the inflected future is used with greater frequency in Acadian French than in other Canadian varieties and that the factors that condition the variable in Acadian are not the same as in other varieties.
This study, drawing on data from a large sociolinguistic
interview corpus for three Acadian communities of Atlantic
Canada, concerns codeswitches involving verbs of opinion
or belief (e.g. guess, think, imagine,
believe) in French-English bilingual discourse. The
codeswitch itself serves to underscore the speaker's
stance as to the truth of the proposition – and,
in some cases, to indicate a degree of uncertainty not
nuanced by corresponding French language forms. Variation
in usage is related to intensity of language contact at
the levels of the community and of the individual.