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In this chapter, we review the literature on leadership and emotion. Progress in understanding the junction of these two ideas has been steady but slow. To address this concern, at the conclusion of this chapter, we briefly discuss two theoretical obstacles that, in our view, have slowed progress. However, we begin with the larger substance of our chapter, which focuses on leaders’ affect at three levels of analysis – the overall climate, the work team, and, finally, the leader himself or herself. We show that leader emotion can be important at all three levels of analysis. At the highest level of analysis, leaders create emotional climate through personnel practices, by rewarding (or punishing) culturally appropriate emotion displays, and by their treatment of individual employees. Moving to teams and dyads, we will see that emotions can influence followers through contagion or emotional correspondence. Finally, looking within the leader, our review underscores how emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership.
Shallow granular avalanches on slopes close to repose exhibit hysteretic behaviour. For instance, when a steady-uniform granular flow is brought to rest it leaves a deposit of thickness
on a rough slope inclined at an angle
to the horizontal. However, this layer will not spontaneously start to flow again until it is inclined to a higher angle
, or the thickness is increased to
. This simple phenomenology leads to a rich variety of flows with co-existing regions of solid-like and fluid-like granular behaviour that evolve in space and time. In particular, frictional hysteresis is directly responsible for the spontaneous formation of self-channelized flows with static levees, retrogressive failures as well as erosion–deposition waves that travel through the material. This paper is motivated by the experimental observation that a travelling-wave develops, when a steady uniform flow of carborundum particles on a bed of larger glass beads, runs out to leave a deposit that is approximately equal to
. Numerical simulations using the friction law originally proposed by Edwards et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 823, 2017, pp. 278–315) and modified here, demonstrate that there are in fact two travelling waves. One that marks the trailing edge of the steady-uniform flow and another that rapidly deposits the particles, directly connecting the point of minimum dynamic friction (at thickness
) with the deposited layer. The first wave moves slightly faster than the second wave, and so there is a slowly expanding region between them in which the flow thins and the particles slow down. An exact inviscid solution for the second travelling wave is derived and it is shown that for a steady-uniform flow of thickness
it produces a deposit close to
for all inclination angles. Numerical simulations show that the two-wave structure deposits layers that are approximately equal to
for all initial thicknesses. This insensitivity to the initial conditions implies that
is a universal quantity, at least for carborundum particles on a bed of larger glass beads. Numerical simulations are therefore able to capture the complete experimental staircase procedure, which is commonly used to determine the
curves by progressively increasing the inclination of the chute. In general, however, the deposit thickness may depend on the depth of the flowing layer that generated it, so the most robust way to determine
is to measure the deposit thickness from a flow that was moving at the minimum steady-uniform velocity. Finally, some of the pathologies in earlier non-monotonic friction laws are discussed and it is explicitly shown that with these models either steadily travelling deposition waves do not form or they do not leave the correct deposit depth
When a layer of static grains on a sufficiently steep slope is disturbed, an upslope-propagating erosion wave, or retrogressive failure, may form that separates the initially static material from a downslope region of flowing grains. This paper shows that a relatively simple depth-averaged avalanche model with frictional hysteresis is sufficient to capture a planar retrogressive failure that is independent of the cross-slope coordinate. The hysteresis is modelled with a non-monotonic effective basal friction law that has static, intermediate (velocity decreasing) and dynamic (velocity increasing) regimes. Both experiments and time-dependent numerical simulations show that steadily travelling retrogressive waves rapidly form in this system and a travelling wave ansatz is therefore used to derive a one-dimensional depth-averaged exact solution. The speed of the wave is determined by a critical point in the ordinary differential equation for the thickness. The critical point lies in the intermediate frictional regime, at the point where the friction exactly balances the downslope component of gravity. The retrogressive wave is therefore a sensitive test of the functional form of the friction law in this regime, where steady uniform flows are unstable and so cannot be used to determine the friction law directly. Upper and lower bounds for the existence of retrogressive waves in terms of the initial layer depth and the slope inclination are found and shown to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined phase diagram. For the friction law proposed by Edwards et al. (J. Fluid. Mech., vol. 823, 2017, pp. 278–315, J. Fluid. Mech., 2019, (submitted)) the magnitude of the wave speed is slightly under-predicted, but, for a given initial layer thickness, the exact solution accurately predicts an increase in the wave speed with higher inclinations. The model also captures the finite wave speed at the onset of retrogressive failure observed in experiments.
The wheat bZip transcription factor TaABF1 mediates both abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and ABA-suppressed gene expression. As levels of TaABF1 protein do not change in response to ABA, and TaABF1 is in a phosphorylated state in vivo, we investigated whether TaABF1 could be regulated at the post-translational level. In bombarded aleurone cells, a TaABF1 protein carrying phosphomimetic mutations (serine to aspartate) at four sites (S36D, S37D, S113D, S115D) was three to five times more potent than wild-type TaABF1 in activating HVA1, an ABA-responsive gene. The phosphomimetic mutations also increased the ability of TaABF1 to downregulate the ABA-suppressed gene Amy32b. These findings strongly suggest that phosphorylation at these sites increases the transcriptional regulatory activity of TaABF1. In contrast to the activation observed by the quadruple serine to aspartate mutation, a single S113D mutation completely eliminated the ability of TaABF1 to upregulate HVA1 or downregulate Amy32b. Thus phosphorylation of TaABF1 can either stimulate or inhibit the activity of TaABF1 in regulating downstream genes, depending on the site and pattern of phosphorylation. Mutation of S318 and S322 (in the bZIP domain) eliminated the ability of TaABF1 to activate HVA1, but had no effect on the ability of TaABF1 to downregulate Amy32b, suggesting that TaABF1 represses Amy32b expression through a mechanism other than direct DNA binding. An important step towards understanding how ABA and gibberellin (GA) signals are integrated through TaABF1 phosphorylation to regulate downstream gene expression is to clarify the effects of those hormones on the expression of specific genes. In contrast to some other ABA-induced genes, we found that HVA1 induction by ABA or TaABF1 is not inhibited by GA.
Although academics can receive considerable training in selecting appropriate research designs, types of data to collect, and methods for analyzing data, as well as guidance on preparing scholarly manuscripts, there is a dearth of information on how to initiate and manage partnerships with organizations in order to conduct high-quality applied research, particularly when the research is quantitative in nature. In this article, we provide our own experience-based insights and recommendations to help academics more easily (a) initiate a research relationship with senior organizational leadership, (b) decide early whether to pursue or end a research collaboration with an organization, (c) keep the organization engaged during the study, and (d) maintain the relationship with the organization after data collection is complete. This information is proposed as a complement to traditional organizational research methods and as instrumental in the pursuit of research salient to the interests of organizational practitioners.
The World Health Organization’s (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) Emergency Medical Team (EMT) Initiative created guidelines which define the basic procedures to be followed by personnel and teams, as well as the critical points to discuss before deploying a field hospital. However, to date, there is no formal standardized training program established for EMTs before deployment. Recognizing that the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) Congress brings together a diverse group of key stakeholders, a pre-Congress workshop was organized to seek out collective expertise and to identify key EMT training competencies for the future development of training programs and protocols. The future of EMT training should include standardization of curriculum and the recognition or accreditation of selected training programs. The outputs of this pre-WADEM Congress workshop provide an initial contribution to the EMT Training Working Group, as this group works on mapping training, competencies, and curriculum. Common EMT training themes that were identified as fundamental during the pre-Congress workshop include: the ability to adapt one’s professional skills to low-resource settings; context-specific training, including the ability to serve the needs of the affected population in natural disasters; training together as a multi-disciplinary EMT prior to deployment; and the value of simulation in training.
AlbinaA, ArcherL, BoivinM, CranmerH, JohnsonK, KrishnarajG, ManeshiA, OddyL, Redwood-CampbellL, RussellR. International Emergency Medical Teams Training Workshop Special Report. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):335–338.
We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20–30 m s−1 on our survey targets.
The purpose of this short problem paper is to raise the following extremal question on set systems: Which set systems of a given size maximise the number of (n + 1)-element chains in the power set
(1,2,. . .,n)? We will show that for each fixed α > 0 there is a family of α2n sets containing (α + o(1))n! such chains, and that this is asymptotically best possible. For smaller set systems we conjecture that a ‘tower of cubes’ construction is extremal. We finish by mentioning briefly a connection to an extremal problem on posets and a variant of our question for the grid graph.
The wheat transcription factor TaABF1 physically interacts with the protein kinase PKABA1 and mediates both abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and ABA-suppressed gene expression. In bombarded aleurone cells of imbibing grains, the effect of TaABF1 in down-regulating the gibberellin (GA)-induced Amy32b promoter was stronger in the presence of exogenous ABA. As these grains contained low levels of endogenous ABA, the effect of TaABF1 may also be mediated by ABA-induced activation even in the absence of exogenous ABA. Levels of TaABF1 protein decreased slightly during imbibition of afterripened grains. However, TaABF1 levels (especially in aleurone layers) were not substantially affected by exogenous ABA or GA, indicating that changes in TaABF1 protein level are not an important part of regulating its role in hormone signalling. We found that TaABF1 was phosphorylated in vivo in aleurone cells, suggesting a role for post-translational modification in regulating TaABF1 activity. Induction of Amy32b by overexpression of the transcription factor GAMyb could not be prevented by TaABF1, indicating that TaABF1 acts upstream of GAMyb transcription in the signalling pathway. Supporting this view, knockdown of TaABF1 by RNA interference resulted in increased expression from the GAMyb promoter. These results are consistent with a model in which TaABF1 is constitutively present in aleurone cells, while its ability to down-regulate GAMyb is regulated in response to ABA.
Introduction: The Working Group (WG) on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support participated in its second Humanitarian Action Summit in 2011. This year, the WG chose to focus on a new goal: reviewing practice related to transitioning mental health and psychosocial support programs from the emergency phase to long-term development. The Working Group's findings draw on a review of relevant literature as well as case examples.
Objectives: The objective of the Working Group was to identify factors that promote or hinder the long term sustainability of emergency mental health and psychosocial interventions in crisis and conflict, and to provide recommendations for transitioning such programs from relief to development.
Methods: The Working Group (WG) conducted a review of relevant literature and collected case examples based on experiences and observations of working group members in implementing mental and psychosocial programming in the field. The WG focused on reviewing literature on mental health and psychosocial programs and interventions that were established in conflict, disaster, protracted crisis settings, or transition from acute phase to development phase. The WG utilized case examples from programs in Lebanon, the Gaza Strip, Sierra Leone, Aceh (Indonesia), Sri Lanka, and New Orleans (United States).
Results: The WG identified five key thematic areas that should be addressed in order to successfully transition lasting and effective mental health and psychosocial programs from emergency settings to the development phase. The five areas identified were as follows: Government and Policy, Human Resources and Training, Programming and Services, Research and Monitoring, and Finance.
Conclusions: The group identified several recommendations for each thematic area, which were generated from key lessons learned by working group members through implementing mental health and psychosocial support programs in a variety of settings, some successfully sustained and some that were not.
In recent years, historians have paid increased attention to the Civil War pension system created for Union army soldiers and their families. It has come to be seen as a milestone in the evolution of U.S. social policy. Despite the overall appearance of generosity and of unbiased treatment for applicants, however, individuals actually experienced the system very differently based on the social status of the soldier involved. Looking at pension legislation, its implementation, and nearly one thousand pension claim files, this article argues that three types of status discrimination appeared in the distribution of pensions: Pension laws paid larger amounts to officers and their families, the Pension Bureau used ability to perform manual labor to determine the level of disability regardless of the applicants' true ability to earn a living, and claims based on the service of officers generally were decided more quickly and more favorably than those of enlisted men. Because military ranks reflected the soldiers' civilian social position—most manual laborers served as enlisted men, for example—these biases meant that individuals of higher social status received significantly better treatment than those of lower civilian status.