Fusarium graminearum and F. pseudograminearum are important plant pathogens in New Zealand and around the world. Headblight and crown rot diseases of cereals caused by these species are responsible for large economic losses due to reduction in seed quality and contamination of grain with tricothecene mycotoxins. In the current study we have used two different molecular phylogenetic approaches, AFLPs and gene genealogies, to gain insight into the evolutionary relationships between F. graminearum, and F. pseudograminearum in New Zealand. The worldwide genetic diversity of F. graminearum clade is represented by at least eight biogeographically distinct species (previously designated as lineages of F. graminearum). Our analysis demonstrated that this clade is represented by F. graminearum (=F. graminearum Lineage 7) and F. cortaderiae (=F. graminearum Lineage 8) in New Zealand. Through our analysis we also confirm the presence of F. pseudograminearum in New Zealand as a first record for this organism. Information on species is necessary for preventing the inadvertent intercontinental introduction of genetically unique foreign pathogens associated with world trade. The ability to place species information into a worldwide context enabled postulation that the New Zealand representatives of F. graminearum clade originated from at least two regions, and probably on at least two hosts. Correlation of species descriptions with biogeographical and host information revealed evidence for co-localisation of F. graminearum clade species with potential for genetic outcrossing in the field. Mycotoxin analysis showed F. graminearum (=lineage 7) isolates produce either nivalenol (NIV) or deoxnivalenol (DON). In contrast, F. cortaderiae isolates produced only NIV. These findings support earlier observations that mycotoxin production in the F. graminearum clade is not species specific, but suggest maintenance of chemotype diversity through speciation may have been restricted to a subset of species.