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To determine the acceptability, internal consistency and test–retest reliability of self-efficacy, motivation and knowledge scales relating to pre-school children’s nutrition, oral health and physical activity.
An online questionnaire was completed twice with an interval of 7–11d.
Online questionnaires were sent to participants via email from nursery managers. The parent questionnaire was also available on the parenting website www.netmums.com.
Eighty-two parents and sixty-nine nursery staff from Bristol, UK who had and worked with 2–4-year-olds, respectively.
Response rates were 86·3 and 86·0 % and missing data 15·9 and 14·5 % for the second administration of the parent and nursery staff questionnaires, respectively. Weighted κ coefficients for individual items mostly fell under the ‘moderate’ agreement category for the parental (75·0 %) and nursery staff (55·8 %) items. All self-efficacy and motivation scales had acceptable levels of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α coefficients>0·7). The intraclass correlation coefficients for the self-efficacy, motivation and knowledge scales ranged between 0·48 and 0·82. Paired t tests found an increase between test and retest knowledge scores for the Nutrition Motivation (t=−2·91, df=81, P=0·00) and Knowledge (t=−3·22, df=81, P=0·00) scales in the parent questionnaire.
Our findings demonstrate that the items and scales show good acceptability, internal consistency and test–retest reliability.
Adult schistosomes live in the blood vessels and cannot easily be sampled from humans, so archived miracidia larvae hatched from eggs expelled in feces or urine are commonly used for population genetic studies. Large collections of archived miracidia on FTA cards are now available through the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN). Here we describe protocols for whole genome amplification of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosome haematobium miracidia from these cards, as well as real time PCR quantification of amplified schistosome DNA. We used microgram quantities of DNA obtained for exome capture and sequencing of single miracidia, generating dense polymorphism data across the exome. These methods will facilitate the transition from population genetics, using limited numbers of markers to population genomics using genome-wide marker information, maximising the value of collections such as SCAN.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is responsible for 5%-10% of all deaths among children 5-19 years-of-age. The incidence of SCD in youth in Michigan (USA) and nationwide is higher in racial/ethnic minorities and in certain geographic areas. School cardiac emergency response plans (CERPs) increase survival after cardiac arrest. However, school cardiac emergency preparedness remains variable. Studying population-level factors associated with school cardiac emergency preparedness and incidence of SCD in the young may improve understanding of disparities in the incidence of SCD.
The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of elements of high school cardiac emergency preparedness, including Automated External Defibrillator (AED) distribution and the presence of CERPs with county sociodemographic characteristics and county incidence of SCD in the young.
Surveys were sent to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties. Counties with greater than 50% response rate were included (n=19). Association of county-level sociodemographic characteristics with incidence of SCD in the young and existence of CERPs were evaluated using Spearman correlation coefficient.
Factors related to the presence of AEDs were similar across counties. Schools in counties of lower socioeconomic status (SES; lower-median income, lower per capita income, and higher population below poverty level) were less likely to have a CERP than those with higher SES (all P<.01). Lack of a CERP was associated with a higher incidence of SCD in youth (r=-0.71; P=.001). Overall incidence of SCD in youth was higher in lower SES counties (r=-0.62 in median income and r=0.51 in population below poverty level; both P<.05).
County SES is associated with the presence of CERPs in schools, suggesting a link between school cardiac emergency preparedness and county financial resources. Additionally, counties of lower SES demonstrated higher incidence of SCD in the young. Statewide and national studies are required to further explore the factors relating to geographic and socioeconomic differences in cardiac emergency preparedness and the incidence of SCD in the young.
WhiteMJ, LoccohEC, GobleMM, YuS, OdetolaFO, RussellMW. High School Cardiac Emergency Response Plans and Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):269–272.
We present a list of bright (< 17 mag) southern QSOs and bright (< 11 mag) stars that may be suitable for the Hubble Space Telescope link between the Hipparcos astrometric reference frame and the VLBI extragalactic frame. The QSOs have been selected from various lists of radio objects and identifications. The stars have been selected from the Strasbourg (CDS) data base and from the Preliminary Second Cape Photographic Catalogue, and supplemented with stars measured from the SERC IIIa-J Schmidt survey. The list of QSOs and stars have been included in the Hipparcos and HST schedule of observations.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20–30 m s−1 on our survey targets.
Identifying risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescence could provide valuable information for early prevention. The study sought to identify risk factors for changes in insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose levels.
Prospective cohort of girls participating in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.
Adolescent girls (n 774) assessed at the ages of 16–17 and 18–19 years. Over a 3-year period, measurements of fasting blood glucose and insulin and serum cotinine were taken, and dietary intake (3 d food diary), smoking status and physical activity levels were self-reported.
Improvements in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were associated with increases in the percentage of energy intake from polyunsaturated fats (β = −3·33, 95 % CI −6·28, −0·39, P = 0·03) and grams of soluble fibre (β = −5·20, 95 % CI −9·81, −0·59, P = 0·03) between the ages of 16–17 and 18–19 years; with similar findings for insulin. Transitioning into obesity was associated with an increase in insulin (β = 6·34, 95 % CI 2·78, 9·91, P < 0·001) and HOMA-IR (β = 28·77, 95 % CI 8·13, 49·40, P = 0·006). Serum cotinine concentrations at 16–17 years, indicating exposure to tobacco, were associated with large increases (β = 15·43, 95 % CI 6·09, 24·77, P < 0·001) in fasting blood glucose concentrations.
Increases in the percentage of energy from polyunsaturated fat and fibre, and avoidance of excess weight gain and tobacco exposure, could substantially reduce the risk of insulin resistance in late adolescence.
The paper reports on the fourth (2010) season of fieldwork of the Cyrenaican Prehistory Project, and on further results of analyses of artefacts and organic materials collected in the 2009 season. Ground-based LiDar has provided both an accurate 3D scan of the Haua Fteah cave and information on the cave's morphometry or origins. The excavations in the cave focussed on Middle Palaeolithic or Middle Stone Age ‘Pre-Aurignacian’ layers below the base of the Middle Trench beside the McBurney Deep Sounding (Trench D) and on Final Palaeolithic ‘Oranian’ layers beside the upper part of the Middle Trench (Trench M). Although McBurney referred to the upper part of the Deep Sounding as more or less sterile, the 2010 excavations found evidence for small-scale but regular human presence in the form of stone artefacts and debitage, though given the sedimentary context the latter are unlikely to represent in situ knapping. The excavations of Trench M extended from the basal Capsian layers investigated in 2009 through Oranian layers to the transition with the Dabban Upper Palaeolithic. Some 17,000 lithic pieces have been studied from the Capsian and Oranian layers excavated in Trench M, in an area measuring less than 2 m by 1 m by 1.1 m deep, along with numerous animal bones, molluscs, and macrobotanical remains, as well as occasional shell beads. Preliminary studies of the lithics, bones, molluscs, and plant remains are revealing the changing character of late Pleistocene (Oranian) and early Holocene (Capsian) occupation in the Haua Fteah. Alongside the work in the Haua Fteah, the project continued its assessment of the Quaternary and archaeological sequences of the Cyrenaican coastland and completed a transect survey of surface lithic materials and their landform contexts from the pre-desert across the Gebel Akhdar to the coast, with a new focus on the al-Marj basin. Significant differences are emerging in patterns of Middle Palaeolithic and later hominin occupation and palaeodemography.
The Second Language Studies (SLS) Program was established in 2005 with the express purpose of providing ‘a firm foundation in the field of Second Language Acquisition and its application to current second language research and teaching’ (http://sls.msu.edu). Under the leadership of Professor Susan Gass, the program has grown to include 12 core faculty members and 27 Ph.D. students. As an interdisciplinary program, linkages across the university exist with the Department of Linguistics and Germanic, Slavic, Asian, and African Languages; the Department of French, Classics, and Italian; the Department of Spanish and Portuguese; the Arabic Language Instruction Flagship; the M.A. TESOL Program; the Center for Language Education and Research; the English Language Center; the Center for the Support of Language Teaching; the Department of Psychology; and the College of Education.
We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extra-solar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1″. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.
We present high resolution optical spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope of low mass T Tauri stars and brown dwarfs in the Taurus star forming region. Based on the inferred photospheric and circumstellar properties, we conclude that objects in Taurus with masses as low as 50 Jupiters form and evolve in the same way as higher-mass T Tauri stars, but with smaller disks and shorter disk lifetimes.
Nanocrystalline diamond thin films of sub-micron thickness have been covalently modified with DNA oligonucleotides. Quantitative studies of hybridization of surface-bound oligonucleotides with fluorescently tagged complementary and non-complementary oligonucleotides were performed. The results show no detectable nonspecific adsorption, with extremely good selectivity between matched and mismatched sequences. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were made of DNA-modified boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films. The results show that exposure to non-complementary sequences induce only small changes in impedance, while complementary DNA sequences produce a pronounced decrease in impedance. The combination of high stability, selectivity, and the ability to directly detect DNA hybridization via electrical means suggest that diamond may be an ideal substrate for continuously-monitoring biological sensors.
We present the results of a high spatial resolution ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared survey of 44 young binary stars in Taurus-Auriga with separations of 10–1000 AU. The observations were carried out using the Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's IRTF. The binary star properties corroborate our previous work that suggests fragmentation is the dominant binary star formation mechanism. Of particular interest, we find that the components of binary systems are more coeval than randomly paired single T Tauri stars. Several important conclusions are drawn regarding the evolution of circumstellar material in binary systems. The mass accretion rates for primary stars are similar to single stars, which suggests that a companion as close as 10 AU has little effect on the mass accretion rate. These accretion rates, if constant, require replenishment of the inner circumstellar disks for at least the closest (≲ 100 AU) binary systems. On average, circumprimary disks appear to survive longer and accrete at a higher rate than circumsecondary disks do. This suggests that circumprimary disks are being preferentially replenished, possibly from a circumbinary reservoir with low angular momentum relative to the binary. The relative T Tauri types and the binary mass ratios tentatively suggest that systems with separations ≲ 200 AU share a common circumbinary reservoir. The higher mass accretion rates of primary stars relative to secondary stars is most likely due to their larger relative mass.
The components of the young hierarchical quadruple GG Tau, which span a wide range in spectral type (K7 – M7.5), are used to test both evolutionary models and the temperature scale for very young, low mass stars under the assumption of coeval formation. Of the evolutionary models tested which extend into the substellar regime, those of Baraffe et al. yield the most consistent ages when combined with a temperature scale intermediate between that of dwarfs and giants. The Palla & Stahler and Siess et al. models are also capable of yielding a coeval age down to their lowest mass (0.1 M⊙). These latter two models, which extend to much higher masses than the Baraffe et al. models, agree reasonably well with the Baraffe et al. models at 1.0 M⊙ and thus could be combined to construct a set evolutionary models that extends from Substellar to several solar masses.
The eight dominant culturable members of an Antarctic fellfield soil bacterial community were four Arthrobacter species, Sanguibacter suarezii, Aureobacterium testaceum, a Bacillus sp., and a Pseudomonas sp.. All of the isolates grew at 2°C, but two of the Arthrobacter spp. were psychrophilic, while the other six bacterial species were psychrotolerant. However, the fastest growing organisms at low temperatures were not the psychrophiles, and the psychrotolerant Bacillus sp. grew fastest at temperatures up to 25°C. When the growth temperature of cultures was altered, the phospholipid content of the two psychrophilic Arthrobacter spp. decreased, whereas the phospholipid contents of the psychrotolerant spp. either increased or did not change. Only one psychrophilic and one psychrotolerant Arthrobacter sp. modified its polar lipid head-group composition in response to a lowering of growth temperature. The change in Arthrobacter sp. CL2-1 was particularly marked and novel in that at low temperatures phosphatidylethanolamine was replaced completely by a phosphoglycolipid and phosphatidylserine, neither of which was present at higher growth temperatures. All eight isolates altered the fatty acyl compositions of their membrane lipids in a manner that was only partially dependent on taxonomic status. In Bacillus sp. C2-1 the changes were opposite to that predicted on the basis of membrane fluidity considerations. The isolates used different combinations of changes in fatty acid branching, unsaturation and chain length. There was no single strategy of thermal adaptation that was employed and the variety of strategies used did not follow phylogenetic boundaries.