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The effect of maternal folate intake on small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births remains inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the associations of maternal folate intake from diet and supplements with the risk of SGA births using data from a cross-sectional study in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. A total of 7307 women who were within 12 months (median 3; 10th–90th percentile 0–7) after delivery were included. Two-level models were adopted to examine the associations of folate (dietary folate, supplemental folic acid and total folate) intake with the risk of SGA births and birth weight Z score, controlling for a minimum set of confounders that were identified in a directed acyclic graph. Results showed that a higher supplemental folic acid intake during the first trimester was negatively associated with the risk of SGA births (≤60 d v. non-use: OR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·96; >60 d v. non-use: OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·94; Ptrend = 0·010; per 10-d increase: OR 0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·99). A higher total folate intake during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of SGA births (highest tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·94; Ptrend = 0·010; per one-unit increase in the log-transformed value: OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·95). A similar pattern was observed for the birth weight Z score. Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation during the first trimester and a higher total folate intake during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of SGA births.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend χ2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (χ2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
Grad's moment models for Boltzmann equation were recently regularized to globally hyperbolic systems and thus the regularized models attain local well-posedness for Cauchy data. The hyperbolic regularization is only related to the convection term in Boltzmann equation. We in this paper studied the regularized models with the presentation of collision terms. It is proved that the regularized models are linearly stable at the local equilibrium and satisfy Yong's first stability condition with commonly used approximate collision terms, and particularly with Boltzmann's binary collision model.
Extended hydrodynamic models for carrier transport are derived from the semiconductor Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation of the scattering term, by using the globally hyperbolic moment method and the moment-dependent relaxation time. Incorporating the microscopic relaxation time and the applied voltage bias, a formula is proposed to determine the relaxation time for each moment equation, which sets different relaxation rates for different moments such that higher moments damp faster. The resulting models would give more satisfactory results of macroscopic quantities of interest with a high-order convergence to those of the underlying Boltzmann equation as the involved moments increase, in comparison to the corresponding moment models using a single relaxation time. In order to simulate the steady states efficiently, a multigrid solver is developed for the derived moment models. Numerical simulations of an n+-n-n+ silicon diode are carried out to demonstrate the validation of the presented moment models, and the robustness and efficiency of the designed multigrid solver.
We develop a numerical method to simulate a two-phase compressible flow with sharp phase interface on Eulerian grids. The scheme makes use of a levelset to depict the phase interface numerically. The overall scheme is basically a finite volume scheme. By approximately solving a two-phase Riemann problem on the phase interface, the normal phase interface velocity and the pressure are obtained, which is used to update the phase interface and calculate the numerical flux between the flows of two different phases. We adopt an aggregation algorithm to build cell patches around the phase interface to remove the numerical instability due to the breakdown of the CFL constraint by the cell fragments given by the phase interface depicted using the levelset function. The proposed scheme can handle problems with tangential sliping on the phase interface, topological change of the phase interface and extreme contrast in material parameters in a natural way. Though the perfect conservation of the mass, momentum and energy in global is not achieved, it can be quantitatively identified in what extent the global conservation is spoiled. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the numerical method developed.
We develop the dimension-reduced hyperbolic moment method for the Boltzmann equation, to improve solution efficiency using a numerical regularized moment method for problems with low-dimensional macroscopic variables and high-dimensional microscopic variables. In the present work, we deduce the globally hyperbolic moment equations for the dimension-reduced Boltzmann equation based on the Hermite expansion and a globally hyperbolic regularization. The numbers of Maxwell boundary condition required for well-posedness are studied. The numerical scheme is then developed and an improved projection algorithm between two different Hermite expansion spaces is developed. By solving several benchmark problems, we validate the method developed and demonstrate the significant efficiency improvement by dimension-reduction.
A globally hyperbolic moment system upto arbitrary order for the Wigner equation was derived in . For numerically solving the high order hyperbolic moment system therein, we in this paper develop a preliminary numerical method for this system following the NRxx method recently proposed in , to validate the moment system of the Wigner equation. The method developed can keep both mass and momentum conserved, and the variation of the total energy under control though it is not strictly conservative. We systematically study the numerical convergence of the solution to the moment system both in the size of spatial mesh and in the order of the moment expansion, and the convergence of the numerical solution of the moment system to the numerical solution of the Wigner equation using the discrete velocity method. The numerical results indicate that the high order moment system in  is a valid model for the Wigner equation, and the proposed numerical method for the moment system is quite promising to carry out the simulation of the Wigner equation.
Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression have been not well studied.
To investigate risk factors for undetected dementia and depression in older communities.
Using the method of the 10/66 algorithm, we interviewed a random sample of 7072 participants aged ⩽60 years in six provinces of China during 2007–2011. We documented doctor-diagnosed dementia and depression in the interview. Using the validated 10/66 algorithm we diagnosed dementia (n = 359) and depression (n = 328).
We found that 93.1% of dementia and 92.5% of depression was undetected. Both undetected dementia and depression were significantly associated with low levels of education and occupation, and living in a rural area. The risk of undetected dementia was also associated with ‘help available when needed‘, and inversely, with a family history of mental illness and having functional impairment. Undetected depression was significantly related to female gender, low income, having more children and inversely with having heart disease.
Older adults in China have high levels of undetected dementia and depression. General socioeconomic improvement, associated with mental health education, targeting high-risk populations are likely to increase detection of dementia and depression in older adults, providing a backdrop for culturally acceptable service development.
In this paper, we propose a robust finite volume scheme to numerically solve the shallow water equations on complex rough topography. The major difficulty of this problem is introduced by the stiff friction force term and the wet/dry interface tracking. An analytical integration method is presented for the friction force term to remove the stiffness. In the vicinity of wet/dry interface, the numerical stability can be attained by introducing an empirical parameter, the water depth tolerance, as extensively adopted in literatures. We propose a problem independent formulation for this parameter, which provides a stable scheme and preserves the overall truncation error of . The method is applied to solve problems with complex rough topography, coupled with h-adaptive mesh techniques to demonstrate its robustness and efficiency.
This paper is a continuation of our earlier work [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 32(2010), pp. 2875-2907] in which a numerical moment method with arbitrary order of moments was presented. However, the computation may break down during the calculation of the structure of a shock wave with Mach number M0 ≥ 3. In this paper, we concentrate on the regularization of the moment systems. First, we apply the Maxwell iteration to the infinite moment system and determine the magnitude of each moment with respect to the Knudsen number. After that, we obtain the approximation of high order moments and close the moment systems by dropping some high-order terms. Linearization is then performed to obtain a very simple regularization term, thus it is very convenient for numerical implementation. To validate the new regularization, the shock structures of low order systems are computed with different shock Mach numbers.
Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.
One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11–14 years), 371 young women (20–34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50–70 years).
After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0·001 to 0·002). BMD Z-score increased by 0·25 (or 2·1 % of the mean), 0·22 (3·5 %), 0·23 (3·0 %) and 0·25 (3·5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0·33 (5·7 %), 0·25 (5·8 %), 0·34 (5·9 %) and 0·29 (4·7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0·05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0·030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.
Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.
A recent work of Li et al. [Numer. Math. Theor. Meth. Appl., 1(2008), pp. 92-112] proposed a finite volume solver to solve 2D steady Euler equations. Although the Venkatakrishnan limiter is used to prevent the non-physical oscillations nearby the shock region, the overshoot or undershoot phenomenon can still be observed. Moreover, the numerical accuracy is degraded by using Venkatakrishnan limiter. To fix the problems, in this paper the WENO type reconstruction is employed to gain both the accurate approximations in smooth region and non-oscillatory sharp profiles near the shock discontinuity. The numerical experiments will demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed numerical strategy.
Using hypocotyl segments of aseptic seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) as explants, regenerated plants with kanamycin resistance were obtained mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain LBA4404). The transformed plants with the CryIA(c) (Bt) gene were confirmed by Southern blotting analysis, indicating the integration of the transgene into the cabbage genome. The majority of the transgenic plants had only a single copy of the inserted CryIA(c) gene. Leaf section bioassays showed that resistance against larvae of diamondback moth in CryIA(c) transgenic cabbage was significantly enhanced. The inheritance patterns of the transgene in T1 offspring of transgenic cabbage were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and a kanamycin resistance test on the leaves of young seedlings. The results showed that dominant gene loci, CryIA(c) or neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPTII), followed Mendelian inheritance, with a ratio of 3:1 segregation in T1 populations.
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