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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but few studies have examined long-term outcomes. We studied the impact of CDI after SOT on mortality and transplant organ complication-related hospitalizations (TOH).
SOT recipients ≥18 years of age with at least 1 year of posttransplant data were analyzed using the MarketScan database for 2007–2014. Patients who died within one year of transplant were followed until death. Patients were grouped as early CDI (ie, first occurrence ≤90 days posttransplant), late CDI (ie, first occurrence >90 days posttransplant) and controls (ie, no CDI occurrence during follow-up). The risk of mortality or TOH after CDI was evaluated using Cox and logistic regressions, respectively.
Overall, 96 patients had early CDI, 97 patients had late CDI, and 5,913 patients were used as controls. The risk for death was significantly higher in the early CDI group than the control group (hazard ratio [HR],1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–3.29; P=.018); there was no significant difference between the late CDI group and the control group (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.38–1.94; P=.717). Both the early CDI group (odds ratio [OR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.45–3.31; P<.001) and the late CDI group (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 2.84–6.71; P<.001) had higher risk for TOH than the control group. For those patients who survived >90 days posttransplant, both the early CDI group (n=89) and the late CDI group (n=97) had increased risk for death or TOH during follow-up than the control group (n=5,734).
Though our study could not prove causality, both early and late CDI occurrence in SOT recipients were associated with worse future outcomes than for SOT recipients without CDI.
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased among hospitalized patients and is a common complication of leukemia. We investigated the risks for and outcomes of CDI in hospitalized leukemia patients.
Adults with a primary diagnosis of leukemia were extracted from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 2005–2011. The primary outcomes of interest were CDI incidence, CDI-associated mortality, length of stay (LOS), and charges. In a secondary analysis, we sought to identify independent risk factors for CDI in leukemia patients. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for potential confounders.
A total of 1,243,107 leukemia hospitalizations were identified. Overall CDI incidence was 3.4% and increased from 3.0% to 3.5% during the 7-year study period. Leukemia patients had 2.6-fold higher risk for CDI than non-leukemia patients, adjusted for LOS. CDI was associated with a 20% increase in mortality of leukemia patients, as well as 2.6 times prolonged LOS and higher hospital charges. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >65 years (OR, 1.13), male gender (OR, 1.14), prolonged LOS, admission to teaching hospital (OR, 1.16), complications of sepsis (OR, 1.83), neutropenia (OR, 1.35), renal failure (OR, 1.18), and bone marrow or stem cell transplantation (OR, 1.27) were significantly associated with CDI occurrence.
Hospitalized leukemia patients have greater than twice the risk of CDI than non-leukemia patients. The incidence of CDI in this population increased 16.7% from 2005 to 2011. Development of CDI in leukemia patients was associated with increased mortality, longer LOS, and higher hospital charges.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(7):794–801
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