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In recent years, a Trigonorhinus sp. (Coleoptera) has caused serious damage to Caragana liouana Zhao Y. Chang and Yakovlev, a major ecological restoration shrub in China. Here, we survey the occurrence and damage pattern of Trigonorhinus sp. and its galls and compare the growth of affected and unaffected plants. Trigonorhinus sp. larvae usually infest the main trunk and lateral branches of the plant, causing the affected branches to become partially swollen and verrucose. Galls develop in stages depending on whether eggs are laid in May or July and proceed in sequence over three years from egg-laying to formation, expansion, dormancy, maturity, dormancy, maturity, and death. Galls inhibit plant development to some extent. On average, six (at least one, and no more than 18; standard error of the mean = 3) larvae occupy each gall, and the number of larvae within a gall did not significantly affect gall size. Gall size significantly affected branch dieback, and large-diameter infested branches had larger galls. This study clarifies the growth dynamics of Trigonorhinus sp. galls and provides a basis for further research into the growth mechanism of the species’ galls.
A combustion synthesis technique was used to prepare nanoparticulate LiMgxMn1−xPO4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2)/carbon composites. Powders consisted of carbon-coated particles about 30 nm in diameter, which were partly agglomerated into larger secondary particles. The utilization of the active materials in lithium cells depended most strongly on the post-treatment and the Mg content and was not influenced by the amount of carbon. Best results were achieved with a hydrothermally treated LiMg0.2Mn0.8PO4/C composite, which exhibited close to 50% utilization of the theoretical capacity at a C/2 discharge rate.
Nanophosphors correspond to nanostructured inorganic insulator materials that emit light under particle or electromagnetic radiation excitation. In this work we investigate the structure and luminescent properties of Ce-doped Lu2SiO5 (LSO) nanophosphors prepared by solution combustion synthesis with the Ce content 0.1 to 12 at. %. Samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), line scan electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra are composed of two major bands centered at 360 and 430 nm, respectively. These results reveal a red-shift and enhanced Stokes shift for the nanophosphors when compared to bulk. Ce content was also found to affect photoluminescence emission intensity and fluorescent lifetime. The nanophosphor concentration quenching curve presents a broad maximum centered at 1 at.%. Lifetime measurements show a continuous decrease from 34 to 21 ns as Ce content is increased.
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