To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The onset of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is studied by linear stability analysis based on the fully compressible Navier–Stokes equations. Compressibility is quantified by the number of density scale heights
, which measures the intensity of density stratification of the motionless, polytropic base state. The nearly adiabatic flow with polytropic index
is considered, where
is the adiabatic polytropic index. By investigating the stability of the base state with respect to the disturbance of specified wavenumber, the instability process is found to be sensitive to the Prandtl number
. For large
, the quasi-geostrophic columnar mode loses stability first; while for relatively small
a new quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is identified, which becomes unstable first under strong density stratification. The inertial mode can also occur first for relatively small
and a certain intensity of density stratification in the parameter range considered. Although the Rayleigh numbers
for the onsets of the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and columnar mode are different by several orders of magnitude, we find that they follow very similar scaling laws with the Taylor number. The critical
for convection onset is found to be always positive, in contrast with previous results based on the widely used anelastic model that convection can occur at negative
. By evaluating the relative magnitude of the time derivative of density perturbation in the continuity equation, we show that the anelastic approximation in the present system cannot be applied in the small-
The influences of non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on flow instabilities and bifurcation characteristics of Rayleigh–Bénard convection are examined. The working fluid is air with reference Prandtl number
and contained in two-dimensional rigid cavities of finite aspect ratios. The fluid flow is governed by the low-Mach-number equations, accounting for the NOB effects due to large temperature difference involving flow compressibility and variations of fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity with temperature. The intensity of NOB effects is measured by the dimensionless temperature differential
. Linear stability analysis of the thermal conduction state is performed. An
scaling of the leading-order corrections of critical Rayleigh number
and disturbance growth rate
due to NOB effects is identified, which is a consequence of an intrinsic symmetry of the system. The influences of weak NOB effects on flow instabilities are further studied by perturbation expansion of linear stability equations with regard to
, and then the influence of aspect ratio
is investigated in detail. NOB effects are found to enhance (weaken) flow stability in large (narrow) cavities. Detailed contributions of compressibility, viscosity and buoyancy actions on disturbance kinetic energy growth are identified quantitatively by energy analysis. Besides, a weakly nonlinear theory is developed based on centre-manifold reduction to investigate the NOB influences on bifurcation characteristics near convection onset, and amplitude equations are constructed for both codimension-one and -two cases. Rich bifurcation regimes are observed based on amplitude equations and also confirmed by direct numerical simulation. Weakly nonlinear analysis is useful for organizing and understanding these simulation results.
The acquisition and tracking strategies of the BeiDou navigation satellite signals are affected by the modulation of Neumann-Hoffman code (NH code), which increases the complexity of receiver baseband signal processing. Based on the analysis of probability statistics of the NH code, a special sequence of incoming signals is proposed to evade the bit transitions caused by the NH code, and an NH Code Evasion and Stripping method (NCES) based on the NH-pre-modulated code is proposed. The NCES can be applied in both 20-bit NH code and 10-bit NH code. The fine acquisition eliminates the impact of NH code on the traditional tracking loop. These methods were verified with a BeiDou PC-based software-defined receiver using the actual sampled signals. Compared with other acquisition schemes which try to determine or ignore the NH code phase, the NCES needs fewer incoming signals and the actual runtime is greatly reduced without sacrificing much time to search in the secondary code dimension, and the success rate of acquisition is effectively improved. An extension of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based parallel code-phase search acquisition gives the NCES an advantage in engineering applications.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Maturation of porcine oocytes was examined after oocytes were cooled at the germinal vesicle stage. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) collected from medium-sized follicles were cooled at 24 °C or 4 °C for 5, 30 or 120 min in a solution with or without 1.5 M dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). After rewarming, COCs were cultured in maturation medium at 39 °C, 5% CO2 in air for 44 h. Meiotic spindle organisation (by immunostaining and confocal microscopy), nuclear maturation (by orcein staining) and cytoplasmic maturation (by intracellular glutathione assay) of oocytes were examined after maturation. When COCs were cooled at 24 °C for various times in the medium without DMSO, a tendency to decreased spindle formation, nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic maturation was observed, but there was no statistical difference compared with controls. Addition of DMSO during cooling inhibited subsequent nuclear maturation and spindle formation. When COCs were cooled at 4 °C, both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation as well as spindle formation were inhibited in most oocytes in a time-dependent manner. DMSO during cooling did not have any beneficial effect on subsequent oocyte maturation and spindle formation. These results suggest that porcine oocytes are very sensitive to a drop in the temperature before exposure to culture. Cooling oocytes before maturation inhibits their subsequent spindle organisation, nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Addition of DMSO to the cooling solution did not protect porcine oocytes from cooling-induced damage.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 17β-estradiol (E2) on nuclear and cytoplasmic (male pronuclear formation and early embryo development) maturation of porcine oocytes. Oocytes were aspirated from antral follicles and cultured in modified TCM-199 medium supplemented with 0.57 mM cysteine, 10 IU/ml eCG, 10 IU/ml hCG, with or without EGF and/or E2. In vitro fertilisation of matured oocytes was performed in a modified Tris-buffered medium (mTBM) with frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa. Oocytes were transferred to NCSU-23 supplemented with 0.4% bovine serum albumin at 6 h after in vitro fertilisation. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) rates of nuclear maturation, pronuclear formation and cleavage (91.7%, 65.2% and 37.3%, respectively) were observed when oocytes were cultured in the medium containing both EGF (10 ng/ml) and E2 (1 μg/ml) than in the medium supplemented with either EGF or E2 or without both. Intracellular glutathione concentration in the oocytes cultured in the medium containing both E2 and EGF was also significantly higher (12.1 pmol per oocyte) than that of oocytes cultured in the medium with E2 or EGF alone or without both. These findings suggested that EGF and E2 have a synergestic effect on both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes.
Nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes collected from different sizes of follicles were examined. Oocyte-cumulus complexes were collected from small (1-2 mm in diameter), medium (3-6 in diameter) and large (7-8 mm in diameter) follicles and cultured in a modified tissue culture medium 199 for 44 h. Nuclear maturation was evaluated after orcein staining, and cytoplasmic maturation was evaluated by intracellular glutathione (GSH) assay. Oocyte diameter, cumulus morphology, steroid hormones and glutathione in the follicular fluid (FF), were also examined. Significantly higher proportions of oocytes collected from large and medium follicles reached metaphase II than did oocytes from small follicles. Oocytes from small follicles also had a smaller size. GSH content was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in oocytes from large (14.24 ± 2.1 pmol/oocyte) and medium (13.69 ± 1.5 pmol/oocyte) follicles than in oocytes from small (9.44 ± 1.28 pmol/oocyte) follicles just after collection. After maturation, oocytes from medium follicles had a higher GSH concentration than oocytes from small follicles. It was found that between 49.7 ± 5.18 nM and 52.25 ± 0.78 nM GSH was present in FF but there was no statistical difference between follicle sizes. A significantly higher (p < 0.001) estradiol level was present in FF from large follicles (299.2 ± 68.6 ng/ml) than from medium (40.0 ± 6.4 ng/ml) and small (41.2 ± 3.7 ng/ml) follicles. Progesterone concentrations in FF from large (281.6 ± 45.9 ng/ml) and medium (267.5 ± 38.6 ng/ml) follicles were significantly higher than that (174.7 ± 22.0 ng/ml) from small follicles. These results indicate that the oocyte's ability to accumulate intracellular GSH during maturation, and extracellular steroid hormones and cumulus cells, affect the competence of porcine oocytes to undergo nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.