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Innovation contributes to a firm's long-term competitive advantages but also involves significant risk and uncertainty. As agency theory predicts, CEOs are self-interested and risk-averse, and thus are reluctant to engage in innovation investments. However, the extent to which CEOs are self-interested and the mechanisms through which self-interested CEOs affect firm innovation have not been empirically tested. To fill this gap, we propose that CEOs possess a mix of both self-preserving and other-regarding motives, and build a mediation model in which CEO values affect firm innovation via firms’ long-term orientation. Based on a three-phase (from 2014 to 2016) survey of 436 Chinese manufacturing firms, we find that CEOs with high self-regarding values reduce innovation efforts and performance by damaging a firm's long-term orientation. Moreover, CEO tenure, CEO duality, and environmental uncertainty weaken the relationship between CEO values and firm innovation via long-term orientation. Our study enriches the innovation literature by extending the basic assumptions of agency theory and by providing empirical evidence to determine whether and how self-regarded CEOs affect firm innovation.
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of adult patients with candidaemia caused by C. albicans vs. non-albicans Candida spp. (NAC). All adult hospitalised cases of candidaemia (2012–2017) at a tertiary hospital in Shenyang were included in the retrospective study, and a total of 180 episodes were analysed. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (38.3%), followed by C. albicans (35.6%), C. glabrata (13.9%), C. tropicalis (10%) and others (2.2%). As initial antifungal therapy, 75.0%, 3.9%, 5.6% and 2.2% of patients received fluconazole, caspofungin, micafungin and voriconazole, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that total parenteral nutrition was associated with an increased risk of NAC bloodstream infections (BSI) (OR 2.535, 95% CI (1.066–6.026)) vs. C. albicans BSI. Additionally, the presence of a urinary catheter was associated with an increased risk of C. albicans BSI (OR 2.295 (1.129–4.666)) vs. NAC BSI. Moreover, ICU stay (OR 4.013 (1.476–10.906)), renal failure (OR 3.24 (1.084–9.683)), thrombocytopaenia (OR 7.171 (2.152–23.892)) and C. albicans (OR 3.629 (1.352–9.743)) were independent risk factors for candidaemia-related 30-day mortality, while recent cancer surgery was associated with reduced mortality risk (OR 26.479 (2.550–274.918)). All these factors may provide useful information to select initial empirical antifungal agents.
Signal-in-space (SIS) continuity and availability are important indicators of performance assessment for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Open Service Performance Standard (BDS-OS-PS-1.0) has been released, and the corresponding public performance indicators have been provided, but the actual SIS performance is uncertain to users. SIS continuity and availability are primarily related to unscheduled outages (failures). Therefore, based on the existing failure classification system and actual operation modes, four types of failure modes are first analysed: long-term failure related to satellite service period, maintenance failure related to satellite manoeuvring, short-term failure associated with random repairable anomalies and equivalent failure corresponding to a combination of the above three types of failures. Second, based on the failure classification and selected precise and broadcast ephemerides from 2015–2016, the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of each failure type are obtained using appropriate detection methods. Finally, using a corresponding assessment model, the SIS continuity and availability of BeiDou are calculated for individual and equivalent failure cases, and these are compared with the provided index in the BDS Open Service Performance Standard.
Heavy metal contamination in the paddy soils of China is a serious concern because of its health risk through transfer in food chains. A field experiment was conducted in 2014–2015 to investigate the long-term effects of different biochar amendments on cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) immobilisation in a contaminated paddy field in southern China. Two types of biochar, a rice-straw-derived biochar (RB) and a coconut-by-product-derived biochar (CB), were amended separately to determine their impacts on rice yield and their efficacy in reducing Cd and As in rice. The two-year field experiment showed that biochar amendments significantly improved the rice yields and that CB is superior to RB, especially in the first growth season. Using a large amount of biochar amendment (22.5tha–1) significantly increased soil pH and total organic carbon, and concomitantly decreased the Cd content in rice grains over the four growth seasons, regardless of biochar type and application rate. Arsenic levels in rice were similar to the control, and results from this study suggest that there was a sustainable effect of biochar on Cd sequestration in soil and reduction of Cd accumulation in rice for at least two years. Biochar amendment in soil could be considered as a sustainable, reliable and cost-effective option to remediate heavy metal contamination in paddy fields for long periods.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
The internal buckling is a common phenomenon in the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays. It makes the physical properties of carbon nanotube array in experiment lower than that in theory. In this work, we analyzed the formation and evolution mechanism of the internal buckling based on quasi-static compression model, which is different from collective effect of the van der Waals interactions. The self-restriction effect and the different growth rate of carbon nanotubes verify the possibility of the quasi-static compression model to explain the morphology evolution of vertical carbon nanotube arrays, especially the phenomenon of the quasi-straight and bent carbon nanotubes coexisted in the array. We generalized the Euler beam to wave-like beam and explained the mechanism of high-mode buckling combined with the van der Waals interaction. The calculated result about the link between compressive stress and strain confirms with the stage of collective buckling in the quasi-static compression test of carbon nanotube array. Preparation of well-organized carbon nanotube arrays was strong evidence verified the effect of self-restriction in experiment.
We report a novel tip-type field emission (FE) emitter by synthesizing the few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes on tip of nichrome (8020) wire (ϕ≈80 μm) by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD). These resultant random arrays of free-standing FLG flakes are aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high-density and stacked to each other to form several larger “flower-like” agglomerates in spherical shapes. The FE performance of the tip-type FLG flakes emitter shows a low threshold field of 0.55 V/μm, a large field enhancement factor of 9455 ± 46, a large field emission current density of 22.18 A/cm2 at 2.70 V/μm, and an excellent field emission stability at high emission current densities (6.93 A/cm2). It can be used in variety of applications that include cathode-ray tube monitors, X-ray sources, electron microscopes, and other vacuum electronic applications.
Gold nanoclusters with precisely controlled atomic composition have emerged as promising materials for applications in nanotechnology because of their unique optical, electronic and catalytic properties. The recent discovery of a 20-gold-atom nanocluster protected by 16 organothiolate molecules, Au20(SR)16, is the smallest member in a surprising series of small gold−thiolate nanoclusters with a face-centered cubic (FCC) ordered core structures. A fundamental challenge facing gold nanocluster research is being able to understand the composition-dependent properties from a site-specific perspective in order to confidently establish structure-property relationships. A step in this direction is to examine the influence of various structural features (core geometry and thiolate-gold bonding motifs) on the bonding properties of gold-thiolate nanoclusters. In this work, ab initio simulations were conducted to systematically study the local structure and electronic properties of Au20(SR)16 from each unique Au and S atomic site using Au L3-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), projected density of states (l-DOS) and S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra. Two larger FCC-like gold-thiolate nanoclusters (Au28(SR)20 and Au36(SR)24) were used for a comparative study with Au20(SR)16, providing further predictions about the cluster size effect on the bonding properties of gold-thiolate nanoclusters with FCC-like core structures. Through this comparison, the smaller core size of Au20(SR)16 produces an EXAFS scattering signature that is non-FCC-like but shows very similar electronic properties with a larger FCC-like gold-thiolate nanocluster.
A clinical audit was used to compare neuroimaging practice in a memory assessment service prior to and 6 months after implementation of guidance, developed from national and European guidelines and adapted to local resource availability, with multislice computed tomography (CT) as first-line structural imaging procedure.
Referrals to the service nearly doubled from the initial audit to the re-audit. Patients having at least one neuroimaging procedure increased from 68 to 76%. Patients with no reason documented for not having imaging significantly reduced from 50% to less than 1%. Despite the larger number of referrals, the mean waiting times for the scans only increased from 22 to 30 days. Variations in practice between the sectors reduced.
Disseminating evidence-based guidelines adapted to local resource availability appears to have standardised neuroimaging practice in a memory assessment service. Further research into the clinical and cost benefits of the increased scanning is planned.
We present an experimental study of turbulent thermal convection with smooth and rough surface plates in various combinations. A total of five cells were used in the experiments. Both the global
for each plate (or the associated boundary layer) are measured. The results reveal that the smooth plates are insensitive to the surface (rough or smooth) and boundary conditions (i.e. nominally constant temperature or constant flux) of the other plate of the same cell. The heat transport properties of the rough plates, on the other hand, depend not only on the nature of the plate at the opposite side of the cell, but also on the boundary condition of that plate. It thus appears that, at the present level of experimental resolution, the smooth plate can influence the rough plate, but cannot be influenced by either the rough or the smooth plates. It is further found that the scaling of
for all of the smooth plates is consistent with the classical
exponent. But the scaling exponent for the global
for the cell with both plates being smooth is definitely less than
(this result itself is consistent with all previous studies at comparable parameter range). The discrepancy between the
behaviour at the whole-cell and individual-plate levels is not understood and deserves further investigation.
An optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen was established. First, the boar semen was pre-diluted with ZORLESCO (ZO) solution and pre-equilibrated at room temperature for 1 h. After adding extender I, spermatozoa were equilibrated at 5°C for 1.5 h; then an equal volume of extender II was added and the spermatozoa equilibrated for 2 h. The resulting spermatozoa were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, equilibrated for 10 min at 3 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen (LN), then promptly submerged into LN. When thawing, straws were incubated in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. This procedure yielded the highest post-thaw motility of 0.58±0.03 and plasma integrity of 63.2±1.2%, together with a normal acrosome in 51.4±2.6% of spermatozoa. Abnormal spermatozoa after freezing represented only 14.0±3.0%.
Silicon nitride films are grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from tetrakis(dimethylamido)silicon, Si(NMe2)4, and ammonia precursors at substrate temperatures of 200-400 °C. Backscattering spectrometry shows that the films are close to stoichiometric. Depth profiling by Auger electron spectroscopy shows uniform composition and no oxygen or carbon contamination in the bulk. The films are featureless by scanning electron microscopy under 100,000X magnification.
Depositions of high quality SiO2 and SnO2 films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe2)4 (M = Si, Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450 °C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 ± 5 atom °. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 Å/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO2 films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm−1. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO2 film deposited at 350°C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO2 films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10−2 to 10−3 Ω cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350°C is crystalline cassitterite with some (101) orientation.
Amorphous germanium nitride thin films are prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from tetrakis(dimethylamido)germanium, Ge(NMe2)4, and an ammonia plasma at substrate temperatures as low as 190°C with growth rates >250 Å/min. N/Ge ratios in the films are 1.3 and the hydrogen contents are 13 atom %. The hydrogen is present primarily as N-H. The refractive indexes are close to the bulk value of 2.1, and the band gap, estimated from transmission spectra, is 4.8 eV.
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