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Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations with turbulence closure models continue to play important roles in industrial flow simulations. However, the commonly used linear eddy-viscosity models are intrinsically unable to handle flows with non-equilibrium turbulence (e.g. flows with massive separation). Reynolds stress models, on the other hand, are plagued by their lack of robustness. Recent studies in plane channel flows found that even substituting Reynolds stresses with errors below 0.5 % from direct numerical simulation databases into RANS equations leads to velocities with large errors (up to 35 %). While such an observation may have only marginal relevance to traditional Reynolds stress models, it is disturbing for the recently emerging data-driven models that treat the Reynolds stress as an explicit source term in the RANS equations, as it suggests that the RANS equations with such models can be ill-conditioned. So far, a rigorous analysis of the condition of such models is still lacking. As such, in this work we propose a metric based on local condition number function for a priori evaluation of the conditioning of the RANS equations. We further show that the ill-conditioning cannot be explained by the global matrix condition number of the discretized RANS equations. Comprehensive numerical tests are performed on turbulent channel flows at various Reynolds numbers and additionally on two complex flows, i.e. flow over periodic hills, and flow in a square duct. Results suggest that the proposed metric can adequately explain observations in previous studies, i.e. deteriorated model conditioning with increasing Reynolds number and better conditioning of the implicit treatment of the Reynolds stress compared to the explicit treatment. This metric can play critical roles in the future development of data-driven turbulence models by enforcing the conditioning as a requirement on these models.
To describe the epidemiology of surgical site infections (SSIs) after pediatric ambulatory surgery.
Observational cohort study with 60 days follow-up after surgery.
The study took place in 3 ambulatory surgical facilities (ASFs) and 1 hospital-based facility in a single pediatric healthcare network.
Children <18 years undergoing ambulatory surgery were included in the study. Of 19,777 eligible surgical encounters, 8,502 patients were enrolled.
Data were collected through parental interviews and from chart reviews. We assessed 2 outcomes: (1) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)–defined SSI and (2) evidence of possible infection using a definition developed for this study.
We identified 21 NSHN SSIs for a rate of 2.5 SSIs per 1,000 surgical encounters: 2.9 per 1,000 at the hospital-based facility and 1.6 per 1,000 at the ASFs. After restricting the search to procedures completed at both facilities and adjustment for patient demographics, there was no difference in the risk of NHSN SSI between the 2 types of facilities (odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–2.3). Within 60 days after surgery, 404 surgical patients had some or strong evidence of possible infection obtained from parental interview and/or chart review (rate, 48 SSIs per 1,000 surgical encounters). Of 306 cases identified through parental interviews, 176 cases (57%) did not have chart documentation. In our multivariable analysis, older age and black race were associated with a reduced risk of possible infection.
The rate of NHSN-defined SSI after pediatric ambulatory surgery was low, although a substantial additional burden of infectious morbidity related to surgery might not have been captured by standard surveillance strategies and definitions.
We report a novel tip-type field emission (FE) emitter by synthesizing the few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes on tip of nichrome (8020) wire (ϕ≈80 μm) by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD). These resultant random arrays of free-standing FLG flakes are aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high-density and stacked to each other to form several larger “flower-like” agglomerates in spherical shapes. The FE performance of the tip-type FLG flakes emitter shows a low threshold field of 0.55 V/μm, a large field enhancement factor of 9455 ± 46, a large field emission current density of 22.18 A/cm2 at 2.70 V/μm, and an excellent field emission stability at high emission current densities (6.93 A/cm2). It can be used in variety of applications that include cathode-ray tube monitors, X-ray sources, electron microscopes, and other vacuum electronic applications.
The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.
The fruit plus accessory parts, and thus not only the fruit or seed, is the diaspore in some species of flowering plants. Atriplex centralasiatica, a summer annual salt-secreting cold-desert halophyte of central Asia that produces flat and humped diaspores, is such a species. The dispersal/germination units of this diaspore-heteromorphic species are fruits enclosed in persistent ‘bracteoles’. Germination of black and brown fruits (i.e. ‘bracteoles’ removed) of this species has been studied in some detail previously, but little attention has been given to the germination biology of the intact diaspores. The aim of this study was to compare the germination biology of the intact diaspores of A. centralasiatica, and their fates in the field during 12 months on the soil surface and buried at 5-cm depth. Fresh flat diaspores germinated to 42.7–51.3% in light (12-h photoperiod) and to 16.0–59.3% in constant dark, over a temperature range of 15–20/30°C, while no freshly matured humped diaspores did so under any temperature/light regime. Neither gibberellin (GA3) nor potassium nitrate (KNO3) had an effect on germination of either diaspore. Both diaspores readily imbibed water, and removal of ‘bracteoles’ released most of the dormancy. Thus, the ‘bracteoles’ are primarily responsible for diaspore dormancy in A. centralasiatica. Humped diaspores persisted for a longer period in the soil than flat ones. The germination requirements of intact natural dispersal/germination units of A. centralasiatica differ from those previously reported for fruits of this species.
We present experimental evidence that a minute amount of polymer additives can significantly enhance heat transport in the bulk region of turbulent thermal convection. The effects of polymer additives are found to be the enhancement of coherent heat fluxes and suppression of incoherent heat fluxes. The enhanced heat transport is associated with the increased coherency of thermal plumes, as a result of the suppression of small-scale turbulent fluctuations by polymers. The incoherent heat flux, arising from turbulent background fluctuations, makes no net contribution to heat transport. The fact that polymer additives can increase the coherency of thermal plumes is supported by the measurements of a number of local quantities, such as the extracted plume amplitude and width, the velocity autocorrelation functions and the velocity–temperature cross-correlation coefficient. The results from local measurements also suggest the existence of a threshold value for the polymer concentration, only above which significant modification of the plume coherent properties and enhancement of the local heat flux can be observed. Estimation of the plume emission rate suggests a stabilization of the thermal boundary layer by polymer additives.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Recent research activities relevant to high energy density physics (HEDP) driven by the heavy ion beam at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences are presented. Radiography of static objects with the fast extracted high energy carbon ion beam from the Cooling Storage Ring is discussed. Investigation of the low energy heavy ion beam and plasma interaction is reported. With HEDP research as one of the main goals, the project HIAF (High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility), proposed by the Institute of Modern Physics as the 12th five-year-plan of China, is introduced.
In order to identify the density and material type, high energy protons, electrons, and heavy ions are used to radiograph dense objects. The particles pass through the object, undergo multiple coulomb scattering, and are focused onto an image plane by a magnetic lens system. A modified beam line at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has been developed for heavy-ion radiography. It can radiograph a static object with a spatial resolution of about 65 µm (1 σ). This paper presents the heavy-ion radiography facility at the Institute of Modern Physics, including the beam optics, the simulation of radiography by Monte Carlo code and the experimental result with 600 MeV/u carbon ions. In addition, dedicated beam lines for proton radiography which are planned are also introduced.
As Si-transistor technology advances beyond the 10 nm node, the device research community is increasingly looking into the possibility of replacing Si with novel, high mobility materials as the transistor channel. Among several possible candidate materials, germanium and germanium-tin alloys (GeSn) have emerged as strong contenders for the next generation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Ge and GeSn transistor research. We address several key material challenges involved in fabricating high-performance Ge/GeSn-based CMOS transistors, such as gate stack formation and achieving low-resistance contacts to transistor source/drain regions. Using Ge/GeSn as channel materials, we present a FinFET-based, Si-compatible CMOS solution for device dimensions expected in the 7 nm technology node, discuss the practical challenges involved in realizing this design, and highlight directions for future research.
Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests. The effects of heat stress temperature (33, 36, and 39 °C), duration of exposure (2, 4, 6, and 8 h), and developmental stage during exposure (embryo-first instar larvae, second instar larvae, prepupae, and pupae) on the development and reproduction of parasitoid T. bactrae were investigated in the laboratory. When exposed to 39 °C for 8 h during pupal stage, only 19.90% adults emerged from host eggs, and more than 14% were deformed (wings were folded or incomplete). Parasitoid females exposed to 39 °C for 8 h as prepupae only lived for 1.45 days and parasitized about 23.5 host eggs. Moreover, life-table parameters of T. bactrae were also influenced by exposure to heat stress temperatures during each preimaginal developmental stage. Based on these results, we propose that T. bactrae is susceptible to high temperatures, especially at 39 °C. Thus, this parasitoid may be more effectively controlling lepidopterous pests during cooler weather conditions.
A method to design the composite insulation structures in pulsed power systems is proposed in this paper. The theoretical bases for this method include the Weibull statistical distribution and the empirical insulation formula. A uniform formula to describe the reliability (R) for different insulation media such as solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, and vacuum surface is derived. The dependence curves of the normalized applied field on R are also obtained. These curves show that the normalized applied field decreases rapidly as R increases but the declining rates corresponding to different insulation media are different. In addition, if R is required to be higher than a given level, the normalized applied field should be smaller than a certain value. In practical design, the common range of the applied fields for different insulation media should be chosen to meet a global reliability requirement. In the end, the proposed method is demonstrated with a specific coaxial high-voltage vacuum insulator.
We present an experimental study of turbulent thermal convection with smooth and rough surface plates in various combinations. A total of five cells were used in the experiments. Both the global
for each plate (or the associated boundary layer) are measured. The results reveal that the smooth plates are insensitive to the surface (rough or smooth) and boundary conditions (i.e. nominally constant temperature or constant flux) of the other plate of the same cell. The heat transport properties of the rough plates, on the other hand, depend not only on the nature of the plate at the opposite side of the cell, but also on the boundary condition of that plate. It thus appears that, at the present level of experimental resolution, the smooth plate can influence the rough plate, but cannot be influenced by either the rough or the smooth plates. It is further found that the scaling of
for all of the smooth plates is consistent with the classical
exponent. But the scaling exponent for the global
for the cell with both plates being smooth is definitely less than
(this result itself is consistent with all previous studies at comparable parameter range). The discrepancy between the
behaviour at the whole-cell and individual-plate levels is not understood and deserves further investigation.
Human milk provides infants with various immune molecules. The objective of the present study was to measure human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) and human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) levels in the colostrum and mature milk of healthy Han Chinese, to identify factors regulating milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 expression and to explore the potential protective effect of milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 on infants. A total of 100 mothers and their babies were recruited into the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and other factors were obtained by a questionnaire. Babies were followed up for a period of 6 months. Colostrum samples (n 100) and mature milk samples (n 82) were collected by hand expression. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels differed in the colostrum and mature milk. In the colostrum, the concentration ranges of hBD-1 and hBD-2 were 1·04–12·81 μg/ml and 0·31–19·12 ng/ml, respectively. In mature milk, the hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels were 1·03–31·76 ng/ml and 52·65–182·29 pg/ml, respectively. Several independent factors influence their production. The multivariable analysis showed a strong association between pre-pregnancy BMI and hBD-1 levels in the colostrum (P= 0·001), mode of delivery was significantly associated with hBD-2 levels in the colostrum (P= 0·006) and gestational age was significantly associated with hBD-1 levels in mature milk (P= 0·010). During the first 6 months of life, the incidence rate of upper respiratory infection was found to be less in the high-colostrum hBD-1 group than in the low-colostrum hBD-1 group (χ2= 4·995, P= 0·025). The present study suggested that the abundance of hBD-1 in the colostrum may have a protective function against upper respiratory infection for infants younger than 6 months.
Ceratovacuna and Pseudoregma are important groups in Cerataphidini (Hemiptera, Hormaphidinae) that not only produce soldier aphids in galls on the primary hosts but also produce horned soldiers on the herbaceous secondary hosts. However, due to sampling bias in previous studies, the phylogenetic relationships of these two genera remain inconclusive. In this study, based on more extensive sampling and examination of both mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI); cytochrome b (Cytb)) and nuclear (elongation factor-1α (EF-1α); long-wavelength opsin (LWO)) genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of Ceratovacuna and Pseudoregma. Phylogenetic analyses, along with morphological evidence, suggested that these two genera belong to the paraphyletic groups with species clustered into three main groups. The monophyly of Ceratovacuna and Pseudoregma as a whole was generally supported by all analyses. Monophyly of Pseudoregma was also supported. The estimated divergence times demonstrated that diversification of Ceratovacuna and Pseudoregma occurred approximately at 10 mya. The relatively low resolution for the basal relationships of the three main clades may indicate that these two genera have experienced a rapid radiation along with speciation burst of their secondary hosts during the late Tertiary.
Hyperbranched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) with uniform spherical morphology has been firstly obtained by ethylene glycol solvothermal synthetic route. The highly dispersed spherical CuPc aggregates with a diameter of ∼500 nm. X-ray diffraction indicated that the molecules were stacked into one-dimensional b-axis aggregate. In addition, the split Soret band together with the broadened and blue-shifted Q-bands in the optical spectra suggested the H (face-to-face) type of interactions in the arrangement of macrocycles in a dense-packed structure. Due to its good symmetrical structure and unique morphology, the hyperbranched spherical CuPc showed excellent broadband microwave absorption behaviors in a frequency of 2–18 GHz. Over an absorber of 5 mm thickness, an absorption bandwidth of 12 GHz corresponding to reflection loss below −10 dB can be obtained. The high value of microwave reflection about −50 dB at the frequency of 16.5 GHz also suggested that the hyperbranched spherical CuPc can be used as promising microwave absorbing materials.
The ability of silver (Ag)-containing borate bioactive glass (BG) coatings to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of titanium (Ti) implants was investigated in vitro and in vivo in a rabbit tibial fracture model. Dense coatings of borate BG (thickness ≈ 20 μm) containing 0, 0.75, and 1.0 wt% Ag2O were prepared by depositing a layer of particles on Ti plates, followed by sintering at 900 °C. The as-prepared coatings had an adhesive strength of 10 ± 1 MPa, and when immersed in an aqueous phosphate (K2HPO4) solution, the coatings converted to hydroxyapatite, releasing Ag+ ions continuously for over 4 wk. After implantation of BG-coated Ti constructs in a rabbit tibial fracture model and of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis, the BG coating doped with 1.0 wt% Ag2O was most effective for the simultaneous eradication of the infection and fracture fixation. Implants coated with Ag-containing BG coatings could provide an approach for reducing implant-related bone infection.
In this work, we review current trends in China to investigate beam plasma interaction phenomena. Recent progresses in China on low energy heavy ions and plasma interaction, ion beam-plasma interactions under the influences of magnetic fields, high energy heavy ion radiography through marginal range method, energy deposition of highly charged ions on surfaces and Raman spectroscopy of surfaces after irradiation of highly charged ions are presented.
The electron emission yield γ induced by Ne2+ and O2+ impacting on a clean tungsten surface has been measured. The range of projectile energy is from 3 keV/u to 14 keV/u. The total electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. It is found simultaneously that the total electron yield for O2+ is larger than the total electron yield for Ne2+, which is opposite to the results for higher projectile velocity. After considering the contribution from recoiling atoms to the energy distribution and electron emission yield, we find that recoiling atoms are of crucial importance in electron emission in our energy range. Thus, the unexpected results in our experiment can be explained successfully.