To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic-fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat), or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/L in the drinking water). After 14-week of intervention, NAC obviously rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic triglycerides (TGs), plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), and liver histomorphology (H&E and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52167 (50758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNAs were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNAs were significantly changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNAs, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902.1 (NO_902.1), lncRNA-XR_001781798.1 (XR_798.1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720.1 (NO_720.1), lncRNA-XR_869907.1 (XR_907.1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181) were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change (FC) value of greater than 4, P-value < 0.01, and P-adjusted value < 0.01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of lncRNA-NO_902.1, lncRNA-XR_798.1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were dramatically decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA-sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNAs, and 13 mRNAs, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of seminal plasma (SP) on boar sperm quality, antioxidant capacity and bacterial concentrations during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar sperm was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) consisting of 0, 25, 50 and 75% (v/v) of SP. Total motility, progressive motility and dynamic parameters were assessed by the computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were measured by FITC-PNA/DAPI and SYBR-14/PI staining, respectively. In addition, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using commercial assay kits. Bacterial concentrations were assessed by turbidimetric assay. Our results showed that 25% SP markedly improved total motility, progressive motility, sperm dynamic parameters, acrosome integrity compared with 0, 50 and 75% SP (P < 0.05). In addition, 25% SP significantly increased T-AOC but decreased MDA content and ROS levels compared with 0, and 75% SP (P < 0.05). Moreover, 25% SP significantly decreased the bacterial concentrations in extended semen compared with 50% and 75% SP, however, which was higher than with 0% SP (P < 0.05). These results suggest that 25% SP can promote boar sperm quality through enhancing its antioxidant capacity during liquid storage.
There has been a growing interest among pension plan sponsors in envisioning how the mortality experience of their active and deferred members may turn out to be if a pandemic similar to the COVID-19 occurs in the future. To address their needs, we propose in this paper a stochastic model for simulating future mortality scenarios with COVID-alike effects. The proposed model encompasses three parameter levels. The first level includes parameters that capture the long-term pattern of mortality, whereas the second level contains parameters that gauge the excess age-specific mortality due to COVID-19. Parameters in the first and second levels are estimated using penalised quasi-likelihood maximisation method which was proposed for generalised linear mixed models. Finally, the third level includes parameters that draw on expert opinions concerning, for example, how likely a COVID-alike pandemic will occur in the future. We illustrate our proposed model with data from the United States and a range of expert opinions.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.
The attitude control error of the robot end-effector directly affects the manufacturing accuracy. The study aims to develop a real-time measurement method of the industrial robot end-effector attitude in the field environment for improving the control accuracy of robot attitude.
In this paper, an attitude measurement method of robot end-effector based on the inertial technology was proposed. First, an inertial measurement system was designed, and the measurement parameters and installation errors were calibrated. Then the inertia measurement principle of robot end-effector attitude was explored, and the robot end-effector attitude measurement was realized with the fourth-order Runge−Kutta algorithm. In addition, the influence of the data processing algorithm and sampling frequency on the attitude accuracy was analyzed. Finally, a test platform was built to experimentally explore the proposed inertial measurement method.
The inertial measured data were compared with the data obtained with the laser tracker. The measurement accuracy of the inertial measurement method reached 0.15°, which met the accuracy requirements of real-time measurements of robot end-effector attitude in the manufacturing field.
The method proposed in this paper is convenient and can realize the real-time attitude measurement of industrial robot. The measurement results can compensate the attitude control error of the robot end-effector and improve the attitude control accuracy of the robot.
While the detrimental effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression is well-established, the underlying mechanisms linking the two continue to be inadequately understood. This study investigated the mediating role of family functioning and the moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity in the association between interparental conflict and adolescent depression. The samples included 651 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 13.27 years; 56.5% girls) from a two-wave longitudinal study with data spanning 1 year. The findings from path modeling analyses provided evidence for the mediating role of family functioning; these findings indicated that interparental conflict can damage family functioning, which in turn exacerbates the risk of adolescent depression. The moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity was also demonstrated by interactions between interparental conflict and cultural beliefs about adversity, as well as, family functioning and cultural beliefs about adversity. The results indicated a buffering role of cultural beliefs about adversity on the deleterious effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression. They also suggested that lower levels of family functioning was associated with increased depression among adolescents were lower in cultural beliefs about adversity.
This study aims to synthesize research trends of blended language learning studies over the past two decades, from 2000 to 2019. Data were collected from the Web of Science, and a total of 60 SSCI-indexed journal articles were retrieved for bibliometric synthesis. Drawing on the revised technology-based learning model, participants, learning strategies, research methods, research foci, adopted technologies, and application effectiveness, advantages, and challenges were addressed. The findings demonstrated that publications were increasing rapidly, and that most articles were published in computer-assisted language learning, educational technology, and applied linguistic journals. The most common target language was English as a foreign language, and the most common learners were college students. In most studies, technologies were mainly used for the purposes of practice or exercises. Mixed, quantitative, and qualitative methods were frequently adopted, with a particular eye on the experiment design, questionnaires, and other specific methods in the second decade. Productive language skills, along with autonomy, satisfaction, and motivation, were major research foci. Language management systems and computer and web-based applications were frequently adopted technologies. Findings of application effectiveness, advantages, and challenges were summarized.
Extensive magmatism in NE China, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, has produced multi-stage granitic plutons and accompanying W mineralization. The Narenwula complex in the southwestern Great Xing’an Range provides important insights into the petrogenesis, geodynamic processes and relationship with W mineralization. The complex comprises granodiorites, monzogranites and granite porphyry. Mafic microgranular enclaves are common in the granodiorites, and have similar zircon U–Pb ages as their host rocks (258.5–253.9 Ma), whereas the W-bearing granitoids yield emplacement ages of 149.8–148.1 Ma. Permian granodiorites are I-type granites that are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, and depleted in high field strength elements and heavy rare earth elements. Both the mafic microgranular enclaves and granodiorites have nearly identical zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The results suggest that the mafic microgranular enclaves and granodiorites formed by the mixing of mafic and felsic magmas. W-bearing granitoids are highly fractionated A-type granites, enriched in Rb, Th, U and Pb, and depleted in Ba, Sr, P, Ti and Eu. They have higher W concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios, and lower Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and K/Rb ratios than the W-barren granodiorites. These data and negative ϵHf(t) values (–6.0 to –2.1) suggest that they were derived from the partial melting of ancient lower crust and subsequently underwent extreme fractional crystallization. Based on the regional geology, we propose that the granodiorites were generated in a volcanic arc setting related to the subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean, whereas the W-bearing granitoids and associated deposits formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting controlled by the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and Palaeo-Pacific Ocean tectonic regimes.
We experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigate the nonlinear interaction between a cavitation bubble and the interface of two immiscible fluids (oil and water) on multiple time scales. The underwater electric discharge method is utilized to generate a cavitation bubble near or at the interface. Both the bubble dynamics on a short time scale and the interface evolution on a much longer time scale are recorded via high-speed photography. Two mechanisms are found to contribute to the fluid mixing in our system. First, when a bubble is initiated in the oil phase or at the interface, an inertia-dominated high-speed liquid jet generated from the collapsing bubble penetrates the water–oil interface, and consequently transports fine oil droplets into the water. The critical standoff parameter for jet penetration is found to be highly dependent on the density ratio of the two fluids. Furthermore, the pinch-off of an interface jet produced long after the bubble dynamics stage is reckoned as the second mechanism, carrying water droplets into the oil bulk. The dependence of the bubble jetting behaviours and interface jet dynamics on the governing parameters is systematically studied via experiments and boundary integral simulations. Particularly, we quantitatively demonstrate the respective roles of surface tension and viscosity in interface jet dynamics. As for a bubble initiated at the interface, an extended Rayleigh–Plesset model is proposed that well predicts the asymmetric dynamics of the bubble, which accounts for a faster contraction of the bubble top and a downward liquid jet.
Several candidates of universal influenza vaccine (UIV) have entered phase III clinical trials, which are expected to improve the willingness and coverage of the population substantially. The impact of UIV on the seasonal influenza epidemic in low influenza vaccination coverage regions like China remains unclear. We proposed a new compartmental model involving the transmission of different influenza subtypes to evaluate the effects of UIV. We calibrated the model by weekly surveillance data of influenza in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China, during 2010/11–2018/19 influenza seasons. We calculated the percentage of averted infections under 2-month (September to October) and 6-month (September to the next February) vaccination patterns with varied UIV effectiveness and coverage in each influenza season, compared with no UIV scenario. A total of 195 766 influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were reported during the nine influenza seasons (2010/11–2018/19), of which the highest ILI cases were among age group 0–4 (59.60%) years old, followed by 5–14 (25.22%), 25–59 (8.19%), 15–24 (3.75%) and ⩾60 (3.37%) years old. The influenza-positive rate for all age groups among ILI cases was 17.51%, which is highest among 5–14 (23.75%) age group and followed by 25–59 (16.44%), 15–24 (16.42%), 0–4 (14.66%) and ⩾60 (13.98%) age groups, respectively. Our model showed that UIV might greatly avert influenza infections irrespective of subtypes in each influenza season. For example, in the 2018/19 influenza season, 2-month vaccination pattern with low UIV effectiveness (50%) and coverage (10%), and high UIV effectiveness (75%) and coverage (30%) could avert 41.6% (95% CI 27.8–55.4%) and 83.4% (80.9–85.9%) of influenza infections, respectively; 6-month vaccination pattern with low and high UIV effectiveness and coverage could avert 32.0% (15.9–48.2%) and 74.2% (69.7–78.7%) of influenza infections, respectively. It would need 11.4% (7.9–15.0%) of coverage to reduce half of the influenza infections for 2-month vaccination pattern with low UIV effectiveness and 8.5% (5.0–11.2%) of coverage with high UIV effectiveness, while it would need 15.5% (8.9–20.7%) of coverage for 6-month vaccination pattern with low UIV effectiveness and 11.2% (6.5–15.0%) of coverage with high UIV effectiveness. We conclude that UIV could significantly reduce the influenza infections even for low UIV effectiveness and coverage. The 2-month vaccination pattern could avert more influenza infections than the 6-month vaccination pattern irrespective of influenza subtype and UIV effectiveness and coverage.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
When a mixture of viscous oil and non-colloidal particles displaces air between two parallel plates, the shear-induced migration of particles leads to the gradual accumulation of particles on the advancing oil–air interface. This particle accumulation results in the fingering of an otherwise stable fluid–fluid interface. While previous works have focused on the resultant instability, one unexplored yet striking feature of the experiments is the self-similarity in the concentration profile of the accumulating particles. In this paper, we rationalise this self-similar behaviour by deriving a depth-averaged particle transport equation based on the suspension balance model, following the theoretical framework of Ramachandran (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 734, 2013, pp. 219–252). The solutions to the particle transport equation are shown to be self-similar with slight deviations, and in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the shear-induced migration, the advancing fluid–fluid interface and Taylor dispersion yield the self-similar and gradual accumulation of particles.
This study uses a sample of technological mergers and acquisitions (M&As) of A-share listed companies in the five major high-tech industries from 2012 to 2016, and conducts factor analysis to measure the heterogeneity of these enterprises in terms of financial slack resources, equity resources, and governance structure. On this basis, multivariate regression analysis is utilized to explore the influence of the acquiring firms' heterogeneity on their innovation performance, and the adjustment action of absorptive capacity between heterogeneity and innovation performance. The research results show that the slack financial resources and highly centralized equity structure of enterprises are not conducive to enterprises improving their innovation performance following a technological M&A, while the impact of governance structure on innovation performance following an M&A is similarly not significant. The empirical evidence provided offer insights and a decision reference for technological M&As of high-tech enterprises.
Geopolymers can be transformed into zeolites under certain synthesis conditions. However, zeolite formation is not frequently reported in KOH-activated geopolymers. This study attempted to explore zeolite synthesis through geopolymerization for a curing time of 24 h using mixed NaOH/KOH alkaline solution as an activator, and then applying the geopolymer-supported zeolites to immobilize Cd(II) in paddy soil. The K2O/M2O–H2O/SiO2 and K2O/M2O–OH–/SiO2 binary zeolite crystallization phase diagrams were obtained. Zeolite A, faujasite and sodalite formed at lower K2O/M2O molar ratios (0–0.2), ferrierite formation was favoured at a K2O/M2O molar ratio of 0.2–0.4 and zeolite K-I and zeolite F-K (both K-zeolites) were observed at a K2O/M2O molar ratio of 0.6. The geopolymer-supported zeolites had micropores and mesopores and specific surface area values of 44.2–74.8 m2 g–1. The material displayed a considerable Cd(II) immobilization efficiency (55.6–58.7% at 4–6 wt.% addition of zeolite).
To examine the associations between factors based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) and behavioral intention among doctors and nurses in China toward free and self-paid (600 RMB or US$91) severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination given 80% effectiveness and rare mild side effects.
The study included 362 doctors and 1,702 nurses in major departments of 5 hospitals of 3 Chinese provinces.
An anonymous online survey was conducted from October to November 2020, facilitated by hospital administrators through online WeChat/QQ working groups. Data on outcome expectations, self-efficacy, norms, and COVID-19–related work experiences were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analyses.
The logistic regression analysis showed that physical (eg, protective effect of vaccination) and self-evaluative outcome expectations (eg, anticipated regret), self-efficacy, norms (eg, descriptive norm, subjective norm, professional norm, and moral norm), and job satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with the free and self-paid SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intention outcomes among doctors and nurses, adjusted for background variables. Doctors who had engaged in COVID-19–related work reported higher self-paid vaccination intention.
Health promotion is needed to improve the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among healthcare workers. Such interventions may consider modifying the identified factors of vaccination intention, including strengthening perceived efficacy, positive feelings about vaccination, the need to avoid future regret, self-efficacy, and social norms. Future studies should examine the actual behavior patterns of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and the efficacy of promotion intervention should be tested in randomized controlled studies.
This article contends that prior research on the behaviour of Chinese local cadres pays limited attention to their motivation for avoiding blame. Using qualitative data from three field studies conducted in Guangdong province, the study focuses on blame avoidance in the cadre responsibility system, which is recognized as an important instrument for state capacity building. Our analysis uncovers three major discursive strategies used by grassroots cadres to manage blame either before or after it is apportioned: de-legitimating performance standards, re-attributing blame and transferring blame risk. We find that local cadres have a role as blame makers in shifting blame and accusations. This finding challenges the conventional view, which typically sees local officials as blame takers. The article concludes by elaborating on the wider implications of this finding and proposing avenues for future research.
Plastic film (PF) mulching is widely applied in agriculture to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) and crop production. However, without efficient recovery, the residual plastic fragments in arable land threaten soil health and food security. Degradable films are generally considered as alternatives to conventional PF to mitigate PF pollution. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate the effects of various film mulching treatments (conventional PF mulching, transparent degradable film (TDF) mulching, and black degradable film (BDF) mulching, and no mulching) on soil water availability and summer maize yield in the North China Plain (NCP). Soil moisture, soil water storage, water use, and grain yield were recorded. Below 20 cm depth, soil moisture and soil water storage were higher in film mulching than in no mulching. Conventional PF mulching yielded the best water conservation, especially from sowing to jointing. TDF and BDF were similar in their regulation of soil moisture. Comparing to no mulching, conventional PF and degradable transparent film significantly reduced maize grain yield by 15.4 and 8.0% (average over 2 years), and reduced WUE by 9.4 and 7.8% (average 2 years), respectively. The observed reduction of grain yield in transparent film mulching might be caused by excessive soil temperature, especially at vegetative stages, which potentially accelerates crop senescence. Black film mulching reduced the soil cumulative temperature and prevent crops from being overheated. As consequence, grain yield and WUE of summer maize under BDF covering were significantly increased by 11.1 and 15.6%, respectively, over the 2 years. Therefore, we suggest that BDF can be used to replace conventional plastics to improve crop yield and control environmental pollution in the NCP.
The research was to introduce the experience of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect (DCVSD) repaired through tricuspid approach.
From January, 2015 to September, 2019, 86 consecutive DCVSD paediatrics underwent repair via right subaxillary vertical incision (RAVI) through tricuspid approach. Perioperative and follow-up data were collected.
The age and weight at operation were 28.1 ± 18.5 (range: 7–101) months and 12.2 ± 4.2 (6–26.5) kg. There were two patients combined with discrete subaortic membrane, two patients with patent ductus arteriosus, one patient with atrial septal defect, and two patients with abnormal muscle bundle in right ventricular outflow tract. The mean size of ventricular septal defect was 7.0 ± 2.4 (3–13) mm. The defect was repaired with a piece of Dacron patch in 68 patients or directly with 1–2 pledgetted polypropylene sutures in 18 patients. The cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time were 46.2 ± 13.3 (23–101) minutes and 29.2 ± 11.5 (12–84) minutes. After 3.1 ± 2.4 (0–14) hours’ ventilator assist and 23.2 ± 32.1 (0–264) hours’ ICU stay, all patients were discharged safely. At the latest follow-up (27.9 ± 14.6 months), echocardiography showed trivial residual shunt in two patients. There was no malignant arrhythmia occurred and there was no chest deformity or asymmetrical development of the breast was found.
DCVSD repaired via right subaxillary vertical incision through tricuspid approach was safe and feasible, providing a feasible alternative to median sternotomy, and it can be performed with favourable cosmetic results.
Nicotine 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate dihydrate is a nicotine salt and can be used as compositions in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4⋅2H2O, are reported [a = 8.424(1) Å, b = 13.179(8) Å, c = 8.591(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 102.073(8)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 932.765(3) Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.256 g⋅cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group.