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To identify phenotypes of type 1 diabetes based on glucose curves from continuous glucose-monitoring (CGM) using functional data (FD) analysis to account for longitudinal glucose patterns. We present a reliable prediction model that can accurately predict glycemic levels based on past data collected from the CGM sensor and real-time risk of hypo-/hyperglycemic for individuals with type 1 diabetes.
A longitudinal cohort study of 443 type 1 diabetes patients with CGM data from a completed trial. The FD analysis approach, sparse functional principal components (FPCs) analysis was used to identify phenotypes of type 1 diabetes glycemic variation. We employed a nonstationary stochastic linear mixed-effects model (LME) that accommodates between-patient and within-patient heterogeneity to predict glycemic levels and real-time risk of hypo-/hyperglycemic by creating specific target functions for these excursions.
The majority of the variation (73%) in glucose trajectories was explained by the first two FPCs. Higher order variation in the CGM profiles occurred during weeknights, although variation was higher on weekends. The model has low prediction errors and yields accurate predictions for both glucose levels and real-time risk of glycemic excursions.
By identifying these distinct longitudinal patterns as phenotypes, interventions can be targeted to optimize type 1 diabetes management for subgroups at the highest risk for compromised long-term outcomes such as cardiac disease or stroke. Further, the estimated change/variability in an individual’s glucose trajectory can be used to establish clinically meaningful and patient-specific thresholds that, when coupled with probabilistic predictive inference, provide a useful medical-monitoring tool.
This study introduces a new real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning method which is suitable for baselines of different lengths. The method merges carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free observation combinations (LWLC) instead of using pseudo-range, and carrier-phase ionosphere-free combination (PCLC), or single-frequency pseudo-range and phase combination (P1L1). In a first step, the double-differenced wide-lane ambiguities were calculated and fixed using the pseudo-range and carrier-phase wide-lane combination observations. Once the double-differenced wide-lane integer ambiguities were known, the wide-lane combined observations were regarded as accurate pseudo-range observations. Subsequently, the carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free combined observations were used to fix the double-differenced carrier-phase integer ambiguities, achieving the final RTK positioning. The RTK positioning analysis was performed for short, medium, and long baselines, using the P1L1, PCLC, and LWLC methods, respectively. For a short baseline, the LWLC method demonstrated positioning accuracy similar to the P1L1 method, and performed better than the PCLC method. For medium and long baselines, the positioning accuracy of the LWLC method was slightly higher than those of the PCLC and P1L1 methods. In conclusion, the LWLC method provided high-precision RTK positioning results for baselines with different lengths, as it used high-precision carrier-phase observations with fixed ambiguities instead of low-precision pseudo-range observations.
Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of ‘brain disconnection’ and ‘brain connectivity compensation’ to ‘brain connectivity decompensation’.
In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated.
We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network.
These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.
This study attempts to figure out the seasonality of the transmissibility of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). A mathematical model was established to calculate the transmissibility based on the reported data for HFMD in Xiamen City, China from 2014 to 2018. The transmissibility was measured by effective reproduction number (Reff) in order to evaluate the seasonal characteristics of HFMD. A total of 43 659 HFMD cases were reported in Xiamen, for the period 2014 to 2018. The median of annual incidence was 221.87 per 100 000 persons (range: 167.98/100,000–283.34/100 000). The reported data had a great fitting effect with the model (R2 = 0.9212, P < 0.0001), it has been shown that there are two epidemic peaks of HFMD in Xiamen every year. Both incidence and effective reproduction number had seasonal characteristics. The peak of incidence, 1–2 months later than the effective reproduction number, occurred in Summer and Autumn, that is, June and October each year. Both the incidence and transmissibility of HFMD have obvious seasonal characteristics, and two annual epidemic peaks as well. The peak of incidence is 1–2 months later than Reff.
Signal-in-space (SIS) continuity and availability are important indicators of performance assessment for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Open Service Performance Standard (BDS-OS-PS-1.0) has been released, and the corresponding public performance indicators have been provided, but the actual SIS performance is uncertain to users. SIS continuity and availability are primarily related to unscheduled outages (failures). Therefore, based on the existing failure classification system and actual operation modes, four types of failure modes are first analysed: long-term failure related to satellite service period, maintenance failure related to satellite manoeuvring, short-term failure associated with random repairable anomalies and equivalent failure corresponding to a combination of the above three types of failures. Second, based on the failure classification and selected precise and broadcast ephemerides from 2015–2016, the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of each failure type are obtained using appropriate detection methods. Finally, using a corresponding assessment model, the SIS continuity and availability of BeiDou are calculated for individual and equivalent failure cases, and these are compared with the provided index in the BDS Open Service Performance Standard.
Associations have been shown between father’s absence and menarcheal age, but most studies have focused on absence resulting from divorce, abandonment or death. Little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect on menarcheal age of paternal absence through migrant work. In a sample of 400 middle school students, this study examined the association between paternal migrant work and menarcheal age against a backdrop of extensive rural-to-urban migration in China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire, including social-demographic characteristics, aspects of family relationships, information about father’s migrant work and age at menarche. After adjusting for BMI, parent marital status and perceived relationship with mother, lower self-perceived quality of father–daughter relationship (both ‘father present, relationship poor’ and ‘father absent, relationship poor’) and lower frequency of contact with the father were associated with higher odds for early menarche. These findings suggest that the assumption that father’s absence for work influences the timing of menarche needs to be examined in the context of the quality of the father–daughter relationship and paternal care, which appear to play a critical role in the timing of menarche. These findings also emphasize the importance of enhancing paternal involvement and improving father–daughter relationships in the development of appropriate reproductive strategy in daughters.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
While hydrodynamic interactions for aggregates of swimmers have received significant attention in the low Reynolds number realm (
), there has been far less work at higher Reynolds numbers, in which fluid and body inertia are involved. Here we study the collective behaviour of multiple self-propelled plates in tandem configurations, which are driven by harmonic flapping motions of identical frequency and amplitude. Both fast modes with compact configurations and slow modes with sparse configurations were observed. The Lighthill conjecture that orderly configurations may emerge passively from hydrodynamic interactions was verified on a larger scale with up to eight plates. The whole group may consist of subgroups and individuals with regular separations. Hydrodynamic forces experienced by the plates near their multiple equilibrium locations are all springlike restoring forces, which stabilize the orderly formation and maintain group cohesion. For the cruising speed of the whole group, the leading subgroup or individual plays the role of ‘leading goose’.
Energetic benefit and enhanced performance are considered among the most fascinating achievements of collective behaviours, e.g. fish schools and flying formations. The collective locomotion of two self-propelled flapping plates initially in a side-by-side arrangement is investigated numerically. Both in-phase and antiphase oscillations for the two plates are considered. It is found that the plates will spontaneously form some stable configurations as a result of the flow-mediated interaction, specifically, the staggered-following (SF) mode and the alternate-leading (AL) mode for the in-phase scenario and the moving abreast (MA) mode and the AL mode for the antiphase scenario. In the SF mode, the rear plate follows the front one with a staggered configuration. In the AL mode, the plates chase each other side-by-side alternately. In terms of propulsive speed and efficiency, the performance of the plates in the SF mode with small lateral spacing
is found to be better than those in the tandem following case (
) and the side-by-side case (i.e. the AL mode). To achieve higher propulsive efficiency, no matter in-phase or antiphase oscillations, the two plates with moderate bending stiffness, e.g.
, are preferred and they should be close enough in the lateral direction. For the side-by-side configuration, the performance of each plate in the antiphase and in-phase scenarios is enhanced and weakened in comparison with that of the isolated plate, respectively. Besides the pressure and vorticity contours, the normal force and thrust acting on the plates are also analysed. It is revealed that the thrust is mainly contributed by the normal force at moderate bending stiffness. The normal force and thrust are critical to the propulsive speed and efficiency. For two self-propelled plates, in view of hydrodynamics, to achieve higher performance the in-phase SF mode and antiphase flappings in the side-by-side configuration are preferred.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important technique for life science research. However, most SCNT embryos fail to develop to term due to undefined reprogramming defects. Here, we show that abnormal Xi occurs in somatic cell NT blastocysts, whereas in female blastocysts derived from cumulus cell nuclear transfer, both X chromosomes were inactive. H3K27me3 removal by Kdm6a mRNA overexpression could significantly improve preimplantation development of NT embryos, and even reached a 70.2% blastocyst rate of cleaved embryos compared with the 38.5% rate of the control. H3K27me3 levels were significantly reduced in blastomeres from cloned blastocysts after overexpression of Kdm6a. qPCR indicated that rDNA transcription increased in both NT embryos and 293T cells after overexpression of Kdm6a. Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Kdm6a improved the development of cloned mouse embryos by reducing H3K27me3 and increasing rDNA transcription.
Although the brittle material in analogue models is characterized by a linear Navier-Coulomb behaviour and rate-independent deformation, the geometry and style of deformation in accretionary wedges is sensitive to shortening velocity. In this study we have constructed a series of analogue models with various shortening velocities in order to study the influence of shortening velocity on the geometry and kinematics of accretionary wedges. Model results illustrate how shortening velocity has an important influence on the geometry and kinematics of the resulting wedge. In general, for models having similar bulk shortening, the accretionary wedges with higher velocities of shortening are roughly steeper, higher and longer, as well as having larger critical wedge angles and height. It accommodates a number of foreland-vergent thrusts, larger fault spacing and displacement rates than those of low- to medium-velocity shortening, which indicates a weak velocity-dependence in geometry of the wedge. Moreover, models with a high velocity of shortening undergo larger amounts of volumetric strain and total layer-parallel shortening than models with low- to medium-velocity shortening. The former accommodate a greater development of back thrusts and asymmetric structures; a backwards-to-forwards style of wedge growth therefore occurs in the frontal zone under high-velocity shortening.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.
As a unique tubular nanoclay, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have recently attracted significant research attention. The HNTs have outer diameters of ∼50 nm, inner lumens of ∼20 nm and are 200–1000 nm long. They are biocompatible nanomaterials and widely available in nature, which makes them good candidates for application in biomedicine. Compared with other types of nanoparticles such as polymer nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, the drawbacks associated with HNTs include brittleness, difficulty with fabrication, low fracture strength, high density and inadequate biocompatibility. Preparation of polysaccharide-HNT composites offer a means to overcome these shortcomings. Halloysite nanotubes can be incorporated easily into polysaccharides via solution mixing, such as with chitosan (CS), sodium alginate, cellulose, pectin and amylose, for forming composite films, porous scaffolds or hydrogels. The interfacial interactions, such as electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding, between HNTs and the polysaccharides are critical for improvement of the properties. Morphology results show that HNTs are dispersed uniformly in the composites. The mechanical strength and Young's modulus of the composites in both the dry and wet states are enhanced by HNTs and the HNTs can also increase the storage modulus, glass-transition temperature and thermal stability of the composites. Cytocompatibility results demonstrate that the polysaccharide-HNT composites have low cytotoxicity even for HNT loading >80%. Therefore, the polysaccharide-HNT composites show great potential for biomedical applications, e.g. as tissue engineering scaffold materials, wound-dressing materials, drug-delivery carriers, and cell-isolation surfaces.
We apply a recently developed filtering approach, i.e. filter-space technique (FST), to study the scale-to-scale transport of kinetic energy, thermal energy, and enstrophy in two-dimensional (2D) Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) turbulence. Although the scaling laws of the energy cascades in 2D RT systems follow the Bolgiano–Obukhov (BO59) scenario due to buoyancy forces, the kinetic energy is still found to be, on average, dynamically transferred to large scales by an inverse cascade, while both the mean thermal energy and the mean enstrophy move towards small scales by forward cascades. In particular, there is a reasonably extended range over which the transfer rate of thermal energy is scale-independent and equals the corresponding thermal dissipation rate at different times. This range functions similarly to the inertial range for the kinetic energy in the homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Our results further show that at small scales the fluctuations of the three instantaneous local fluxes are highly asymmetrically distributed and there is a strong correlation between any two fluxes. These small-scale features are signatures of the mixing and dissipation of fluids with steep temperature gradients at the fluid interfaces.
We present experimental evidence that a minute amount of polymer additives can significantly enhance heat transport in the bulk region of turbulent thermal convection. The effects of polymer additives are found to be the enhancement of coherent heat fluxes and suppression of incoherent heat fluxes. The enhanced heat transport is associated with the increased coherency of thermal plumes, as a result of the suppression of small-scale turbulent fluctuations by polymers. The incoherent heat flux, arising from turbulent background fluctuations, makes no net contribution to heat transport. The fact that polymer additives can increase the coherency of thermal plumes is supported by the measurements of a number of local quantities, such as the extracted plume amplitude and width, the velocity autocorrelation functions and the velocity–temperature cross-correlation coefficient. The results from local measurements also suggest the existence of a threshold value for the polymer concentration, only above which significant modification of the plume coherent properties and enhancement of the local heat flux can be observed. Estimation of the plume emission rate suggests a stabilization of the thermal boundary layer by polymer additives.