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The hardware-in-the-loop docking simulators are significant ground test equipment for aerospace projects. The fidelity of docking simulation highly depends on the accuracy performance. This paper investigates the kinematic accuracy for the developed docking simulator. A novel kinematic calibration method which can reduce the number of parameters for error modeling is presented. The principle of parameters separation is studied. A simplified error model is derived based on Taylor series. This method can contribute to the simplification of the error model, fewer measurements, and easier convergence during the parameters identification. The calibration experiment validates this method for further accuracy enhancement.
Recently, the asymptotic mean value of the height for a birth-and-death process is given in Videla [Videla, L.A. (2020)]. We consider the asymptotic variance of the height in the case when the number of states tends to infinity. Further, we prove that the heights exhibit a cutoff phenomenon and that the normalized height converges to a degenerate distribution.
Varicella is an acute respiratory infectious diseases, with high transmissibility and quick dissemination. In this study, an SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) dynamic model was established to explore the optimal prevention and control measures according to the epidemiological characteristics about varicella outbreak in a school in a central city of China. Berkeley Madonna 8.3.18 and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software were employed for the model simulation and data management, respectively. The result showed that the simulated result of SEIR model agreed well with the reported data when β (infected rate) equal to 0.067. Models showed that the cumulative number of cases was only 13 when isolation adopted when the infected individuals were identified (assuming isolation rate was up to 100%); the cumulative number of cases was only two and the TAR (total attack rate) was 0.56% when the vaccination coefficient reached 50%. The cumulative number of cases did not change significantly with the change of efficiency of ventilation and disinfection, but the peak time was delayed; when δ (vaccination coefficient) = 0.1, m (ventilation efficiency) = 0.7 or δ = 0.2, m = 0.5 or δ = 0.3, m = 0.1 or δ = 0.4 and above, the cumulative number of cases would reduce to one case and TAR would reduce to 0.28% with combined interventions. Varicella outbreak in school could be controlled through strict isolation or vaccination singly; combined interventions have been adopted when the vaccination coefficient was low.
This study seeks to identify healthcare utilization patterns following symptomatic respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and the variables that may influence these patterns.
RTIs are responsible for the bulk of the primary healthcare burden worldwide. Yet, the use of health services for RTIs displays great discrepancies between populations. This research examines the influence of social demographics, economic factors, and accessibility on healthcare utilization following RTIs.
Structured interviews were administered by trained physicians at the households of informants selected by cluster randomization. Descriptive and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess healthcare utilization and associated independent variables.
A total of 60 678 informants completed the interviews. Of the 2.9% informants exhibiting upper RTIs, 69.5–73.9% sought clinical care. Healthcare utilization rates for common cold, influenza, nine acute upper RTIs, and overall RTIs demonstrate statistically significant associations with the variables of age, type of residence, employment, medical insurance, annual food expenditure, distance to medical facilities, and others. The odds ratios for healthcare utilization rates varied substantially, ranging from 0.026 to 9.364. More than 69% of informants with RTIs sought clinical interventions. These findings signify a marked issue with the large amount of healthcare for self-limited RTIs.
With rapid growth of human population and decreasing labefaction of our environment, the usable fresh water is facing severe pollution and global shortage. Bio-inspired engineering and biotemplate-directed engineering thus offer great promise in clean water generation, including desalination, decontamination, and disinfection. This perspective begins with an introduction of solar energy-based interfacial evaporation system inspired by the natural systems of organisms, and then provides a review of the development and recent progress of the interfacial evaporation system for clean water generation. The long-term outlook in this field of clean water generation using bio-inspired interfacial systems is also discussed.
Chickenpox is a common acute and highly contagious disease in childhood; moreover, there is currently no targeted treatment. Carrying out an early warning on chickenpox plays an important role in taking targeted measures in advance as well as preventing the outbreak of the disease. In recent years, the infectious disease dynamic model has been widely used in the research of various infectious diseases. The logistic differential equation model can well demonstrate the epidemic characteristics of epidemic outbreaks, gives the point at which the early epidemic rate changes from slow to fast. Therefore, our study aims to use the logistic differential equation model to explore the epidemic characteristics and early-warning time of varicella. Meanwhile, the data of varicella cases were collected from first week of 2008 to 52nd week of 2017 in Changsha. Finally, our study found that the logistic model can be well fitted with varicella data, besides the model illustrated that there are two peaks of varicella at each year in Changsha City. One is the peak in summer–autumn corresponding to the 8th–38th week; the other is in winter–spring corresponding to the time from the 38th to the seventh week next year. The ‘epidemic acceleration week’ average value of summer–autumn and winter–spring are about the 16th week (ranging from the 15th to 17th week) and 45th week (ranging from the 44th to 47th week), respectively. What is more, taking warning measures during the acceleration week, the preventive effect will be delayed; thus, we recommend intervene during recommended warning weeks which are the 15th and 44th weeks instead.
Excessive worry is a defining feature of generalized anxiety disorder and is present in a wide range of other psychiatric conditions. Therefore, individualized predictions of worry propensity could be highly relevant in clinical practice, with respect to the assessment of worry symptom severity at the individual level.
We applied a multivariate machine learning approach to predict dispositional worry based on microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) tracts.
We demonstrated that the machine learning model was able to decode individual dispositional worry scores from microstructural properties in widely distributed WM tracts (mean absolute error = 10.46, p < 0.001; root mean squared error = 12.82, p < 0.001; prediction R2 = 0.17, p < 0.001). WM tracts that contributed to worry prediction included the posterior limb of internal capsule, anterior corona radiate, and cerebral peduncle, as well as the corticolimbic pathways (e.g. uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix) already known to be critical for emotion processing and regulation.
The current work thus elucidates potential neuromarkers for clinical assessment of worry symptoms across a wide range of psychiatric disorders. In addition, the identification of widely distributed pathways underlying worry propensity serves to better improve the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with worry.
The basic principle of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is that high mixing entropies of solid-solution phases enhance the phase stability, which renders us a new strategy on alloy design. The current research of HEAs mostly emphasizes mechanical behavior at room and higher temperatures. Relatively fewer papers are focused on low-temperature behaviors, below room temperature. However, based on the published papers, we can find that the low-temperature properties of HEAs are generally excellent. The great potential for cryogenic applications could be expected on HEAs. In this article, we summarized and discussed the mechanical behaviors and deformation mechanisms, as well as stacking-fault energies, of HEAs at low temperatures. The comparison of low-temperature properties of HEAs and conventional alloys will be provided. Future research directions will be suggested at the end.
We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated.
The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations.
A comprehensive echocardiogram – standard two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography – and electrocardiogram were obtained for members in this family.
As previously reported, four missense mutations – MYH7-H1717Q, KCNQ1-R190W, MYLK2-K324E, and TMEM70-I147T – were identified in this family. The MYH7-H1717Q mutation carriers had significantly increased left ventricular mass indices, elevated E/e’ ratio, deteriorated global longitudinal stain, but enhanced global circumferential and radial strain compared with those in non-mutation patients (all p<0.05). The KCNQ1-R190W carriers showed significantly prolonged QTc intervals, and the MYLK2-K324E mutation carriers showed inverted T-waves (both p<0.05). However, the TMEM70-I147T mutation carriers had similar echocardiography and electrocardiographic data as non-mutation patients.
Three of the identified four mutations had potential pathogenic effects in this family: MYH7-H1717Q was associated with increased left ventricular thickness, elevated left ventricular filling pressure, and altered myocardial deformation; KCNQ1-R190W and MYLK2-K324E mutations were correlated with electrocardiographic abnormalities reflected in long QT phenotype and inverted T-waves, respectively.
The acquisition and tracking strategies of the BeiDou navigation satellite signals are affected by the modulation of Neumann-Hoffman code (NH code), which increases the complexity of receiver baseband signal processing. Based on the analysis of probability statistics of the NH code, a special sequence of incoming signals is proposed to evade the bit transitions caused by the NH code, and an NH Code Evasion and Stripping method (NCES) based on the NH-pre-modulated code is proposed. The NCES can be applied in both 20-bit NH code and 10-bit NH code. The fine acquisition eliminates the impact of NH code on the traditional tracking loop. These methods were verified with a BeiDou PC-based software-defined receiver using the actual sampled signals. Compared with other acquisition schemes which try to determine or ignore the NH code phase, the NCES needs fewer incoming signals and the actual runtime is greatly reduced without sacrificing much time to search in the secondary code dimension, and the success rate of acquisition is effectively improved. An extension of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based parallel code-phase search acquisition gives the NCES an advantage in engineering applications.
The three-dimensional, inviscid and viscous flow instability modes that appear on a solid-body rotation flow in a finite-length straight, circular pipe are analysed. This study is a direct extension of the Wang & Rusak (Phys. Fluids, vol. 8 (4), 1996a, pp. 1007–1016) analysis of axisymmetric instabilities on inviscid swirling flows in a pipe. The linear stability equations are the same as those derived by Kelvin (Phil. Mag., vol. 10, 1880, pp. 155–168). However, we study a general mode of perturbation that satisfies the inlet, outlet and wall conditions of a flow in a finite-length pipe with a fixed in time and in space vortex generator ahead of it. This mode is different from the classical normal mode of perturbations. The eigenvalue problem for the growth rate and the shape of the perturbations for any azimuthal wavenumber
consists of a linear system of partial differential equations in terms of the axial and radial coordinates (
). The stability problem is solved numerically for all azimuthal wavenumbers
. The computed growth rates and the related shapes of the various perturbation modes that appear in sequence as a function of the base flow swirl ratio (
) and pipe length (
) are presented. In the inviscid flow case, the
modes are the first to become unstable as the swirl ratio is increased and dominate the perturbation’s growth in a certain range of swirl levels. The
instability modes compete with the axisymmetric (
) instability modes as the swirl ratio is further increased. In the viscous flow case, the viscous damping effects reduce the modes’ growth rates. The neutral stability line is presented in a Reynolds number (
) versus swirl ratio (
) diagram and can be used to predict the first appearance of axisymmetric or spiral instabilities as a function of
. We use the Reynolds–Orr equation to analyse the various production terms of the perturbation’s kinetic energy and establish the elimination of the flow axial homogeneity at high swirl levels as the underlying physical mechanism that leads to flow exchange of stability and to the appearance of both spiral and axisymmetric instabilities. The viscous effects in the bulk have only a passive influence on the modes’ shapes and growth rates. These effects decrease with the increase of
. We show that the inviscid flow stability results are the inviscid-limit stability results of high-
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used widely in the provision of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services. Today, there is an increasing demand on GNSS to support applications at lane level. These applications required at lane level include lane control, collision avoidance and intelligent speed assistance. In lane control, detecting irregular driving behaviour within the lane is a basic requirement for safety related lane level applications. There are two major issues involved in lane level irregular driving identification: access to high accuracy positioning and vehicle dynamic parameters, and extraction of erratic driving behaviour from this and other related information. This paper proposes an integrated algorithm for lane level irregular driving identification. Access to high accuracy positioning is enabled by GNSS and its integration with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) using filtering with precise vehicle motion models and lane information. The identification of irregular driving behaviour is achieved by algorithms developed for different types of events based on the application of a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results show that decimetre level accuracy can be achieved and that different types of lane level irregular driving behaviour can be identified.
Silver-decorated titanium dioxide (Ag/TiO2) nanotube (NT) arrays were successfully prepared using a two-step synthesis route comprised of an anodic oxidation procedure followed by photochemical reduction using ultraviolet irradiation. The resulting Ag/TiO2 NT arrays were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrometry. The characterization results indicated that the silver decoration significantly enhanced the light absorption capability of the TiO2 NT arrays in the visible spectral range. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the subject NT arrays was investigated. The experimental results showed the photocatalytic activity of silver-decorated titanium dioxide Ag/TiO2 NT arrays to be dependent on the size of the silver particles. The improved visible light absorption can be attributed to plasmonic effects induced by particle size phenomenon. The Ag/TiO2 NT arrays exhibit promising application for photocatalytic degradation of dye solutions and pollutants in water using visible irradiation.
Cryptosporidium spp. is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal epithelium and causes diarrhoeal disease worldwide. It is one of the most common pathogens responsible for moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years. Because of the ‘minimally invasive’ nature of Cryptosporidium infection, mucosal epithelial cells are critical to the host's anti-Cryptosporidium immunity. Gastrointestinal epithelial cells not only provide the first and most rapid defence against Cryptosporidium infection, they also mobilize immune effector cells to the infection site to activate adaptive immunity. Recent advances in genomic research have revealed the existence of a large number of non-protein-coding RNA transcripts, so called non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), in mammalian cells. Some ncRNAs may be key regulators for diverse biological functions, including innate immune responses. Specifically, ncRNAs may modulate epithelial immune responses at every step of the innate immune network following Cryptosporidium infection, including production of antimicrobial molecules, expression of cytokines/chemokines, release of epithelial cell-derived exosomes, and feedback regulation of immune homoeostasis. This review briefly summarizes the current science on ncRNA regulation of innate immunity to Cryptosporidium, with a focus on microRNA-associated epithelial immune responses.
A method to design the composite insulation structures in pulsed power systems is proposed in this paper. The theoretical bases for this method include the Weibull statistical distribution and the empirical insulation formula. A uniform formula to describe the reliability (R) for different insulation media such as solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, and vacuum surface is derived. The dependence curves of the normalized applied field on R are also obtained. These curves show that the normalized applied field decreases rapidly as R increases but the declining rates corresponding to different insulation media are different. In addition, if R is required to be higher than a given level, the normalized applied field should be smaller than a certain value. In practical design, the common range of the applied fields for different insulation media should be chosen to meet a global reliability requirement. In the end, the proposed method is demonstrated with a specific coaxial high-voltage vacuum insulator.
Background: Although knowledge of established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can logically contribute to the search for predictors of the progression of cognitive impairment, it has not yet been firmly established where in the cognitive impairment process these risk factors exert their effects and how to predict quantitatively for the progression of mild cognitive impairments (MCI) to AD. This study aimed to determine whether known risk factors increased the risk of progression from MCI to AD and to make prediction based on transition probabilities.
Methods: Based on ten examinations of 600 community-dwelling MCI residents and cognitive assessments to classify individuals into MCI, global impairment, and AD, a multi-state Markov Cox's regression model was used and the hazard ratios with their confidence intervals and transition probabilities were estimated.
Results: Multivariate analysis showed that gender, age, and hypertension were statistically significant predictors of transition from MCI to global impairment; age, education, and reading statistically influenced transition from global impairment to MCI; gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, and apolipoprotein E geneε4 status were statistically associated with transition from global impairment to AD. Subjects at MCI were more likely (67%) to remain in that cognitive state at the next cognitive assessment than to transition to cognitive deterioration. For global impairment, probability of remaining in the same state was only 18% and that of forward transition was three times more likely than that of backward transition.
Conclusions: Known risk factors influenced differently for different transitions. Transition from global impairment was more likely to worsen to severe cognitive deterioration than transition from MCI.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague–Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N (I/R) and EN (I/R) sub-groups (P < 0·05). The activation of NF-κB and the expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 mRNA significantly increased in the jejunum, ileum, liver and lung after intestinal I/R injury, but notably lower in the I/R+D groups than those in I/R (P < 0·05). The injury degree and HMGB1 expression were decreased in the n-3 PUFA group than in the N and EN groups. We preliminarily concluded that nutrition with n-3 PUFA and/or intestinal lymph drainage may reduce HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokine in serum and lymph and inhibit the expression and signal transmission of TLR4 mRNA, thereby alleviating intestinal I/R injury in rats.
The evolution of shear bands (SBs) into cracks was observed by using a high-resolution scanning electron microscope in Zr59Cu20Al10Ni8Ti3 metallic glassy samples after a small punch test with different strain rates. As shear strain increased along a radial SB, three distinctive regions of morphologies were found (I) bonded SB, (II) microcrack plus bonded SB, and (III) full crack. In region II with moderate shear strain, some glassy “extrusions” were also observed. Once shear offset increases to a critical value, the SB becomes a full crack. For two different SBs in one specimen, the critical shear offsets maintain approximately the same value, which sheds light on the critical shear failure condition of metallic glass. The critical shear offset was also found to be sensitive to the strain rate and a higher strain rate led to less critical shear offset. It is suggested that the structure evolution and heat evolution within a shearing SB should be responsible for the previous results.
Many lacustrine chronology records suffer from radiocarbon reservoir effects. A continuous, accurate varve chronology, in conjunction with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating, was used to determine the age of lacustrine sediment and to quantify the past 14C reservoir effect in Sugan Lake (China). Reservoir age varied from 4340 to 2590 yr due to 14C-depleted water in the late Holocene. However, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), 14C reservoir age was relatively stable. According to this study, 14C reservoir age in the late Holocene may be driven by hydrological and climatic changes of this period. Therefore, special caution should be paid to the correction of the 14C reservoir effect by a unique 14C reservoir age in paleoclimatic and paleolimnological study of northwest China.