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Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which is marked by fever, is a possible complication after open-heart surgery for CHD. The inflammatory response following the use of cardiopulmonary bypass shows similar clinical signs with sepsis. Therefore serial measurements of procalcitonin, an early infection marker, can be helpful to differentiate between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
To evaluate serial levels of procalcitonin in children who underwent open-heart surgery for cyanotic and acyanotic CHD, and identify factors associated with elevated level of procalcitonin.
Children and infants who had open-heart surgery and showed fever within 6 hours after surgery were recruited. Procalcitonin levels were serially measured along with leukocyte and platelet count. Other data were also recorded, including diagnosis, age, body weight, axillary temperature, aortic clamp time, bypass time, duration of mechanical ventilation, risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score-1, and length of stay in Cardiac ICU. The patients were categorised into cyanotic and acyanotic CHD groups.
High mean of procalcitonin level suggested the presence of bacterial infection. Cyanotic CHD group had significantly higher mean of procalcitonin level compared to acyanotic CHD group in the first two measurements. Both groups had no leukocytosis, though platelet count results were significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant difference of procalcitonin level observed in culture results and adverse outcomes.
Serial procalcitonin measurement can be helpful to determine the cause of fever. Meanwhile other conventional markers such as leukocyte and platelet should be assessed thoroughly.
Cardiopulmonary bypass during tetralogy of Fallot corrective surgery is associated with oxidative stress, and contributes to peri-operative problems. Curcumin has been known as a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species, which enhances the activity of antioxidants and suppresses phosphorylation of transcription factors involved in inflamation and apoptosis.
To evaluate the effects of curcumin as an antioxidant by evaluating the concentrations of malondialdehyde and glutathione, activity of nuclear factor-kappa B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, caspase-3, and post-operative clinical outcomes.
Tetralogy of Fallot patients for corrective surgery were randomised to receive curcumin (45 mg/day) or placebo orally for 14 days before surgery. Malondialdehyde and glutathione concentrations were evaluated during the pre-ischaemia, ischaemia, re-perfusion phases, and 6 hours after aortic clamping-off. Nuclear factor-kappa B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and caspase-3, taken from the infundibulum, were assessed during the pre-ischaemia, ischaemia, and re-perfusion phases. Haemodynamic parameters were monitored until day 5 after surgery.
In all the observation phases, malondialdehyde and glutathione concentrations were similar between groups. There was no significant difference in nuclear factor-kappa B activity between the groups for three observations; however, in the curcumin group, c-Jun N-terminal kinase significantly decreased from the pre-ischaemia to the re-perfusion phases, and caspase-3 expression was lower in the ischaemia phase. Patients in the curcumin group had lower temperature and better ventricular functions, but no significant differences were found in mechanical ventilation day or length of hospital stay in the two groups.
Cardioprotective effects of curcumin may include inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and caspase-3 in cardiomyocytes, particularly in the ischaemia phase.
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