To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
While the majority of worldwide hepatitis E viral (HEV) infections that occur in people are from contaminated water or food sources, there has also been a steadily rising number of reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV (TT-HEV) in blood donation recipients. For most, HEV infection is acute, self-limiting and asymptomatic. However, patients that are immunocompromised, especially transplant patients, are at much higher risk for developing chronic infections, which can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, along with overall increased mortality. Because of the rising trend of HEV serological prevalence among the global population, and the fact that TT-HEV infection can cause serious clinical consequences among those patients most at need for blood donation, the need for screening for TT-HEV has been gaining in prominence as an important public health concern for both developing and developed countries. In the review, we summarise evidence for and notable cases of TT-HEV infections, the various aspects of HEV screening protocols and recent trends in the implementation of TT-HEV broad-based blood screening programmes.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
This article focuses on advances in both basic and applied research on soybean germplasm resources collected from China and dispersed to the world. Many landraces developed over the course of the 4500 years since its domestication in the Huangdi period. Systematic germplasm collection was begun in the early 20th century by Professor Shou Wang, and since then over 170,000 accessions have been conserved worldwide. Evaluation with respect to key morphological characteristics, pest resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality attributes has been widely carried out. In addition, genetic diversity has been assessed at the DNA level, and used to establish core collections for both cultivated (Glycine max) and wild (Glycine soja) soybean. Some core sets have targeted the most used parental lines, and others have focused on specific traits, such as resistance to the soybean cyst nematode or to soybean mosaic virus, or enhanced phosphorus use efficiency. The recent acquisition of the soybean genome sequence should accelerate the utilization of not only the Chinese soybean germplasm collection, but also those maintained elsewhere in the world.
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are co-dominant molecular markers. When we used fluorescent SSR markers to construct a linkage map for the female heterogametic silkworm (Bombyx mori, ZW), we found that some loci did not segregate in a Mendelian ratio of 1:1 in a backcross population. These loci segregated in a 3:1 ratio of single bands compared with double bands. Further examination of band patterns indicated that three types of SSR bands were present: two homozygotes and one heterozygote. In the beginning, we considered to discard these markers. By scoring male and female F1 individuals, we confirmed that these loci were located on the Z chromosome. Using the sex-linked visible mutation sch (K05) and its wild-type (C108), we constructed an F1 male backcross (BC1M) mapping population. The combination of sch backcross and SSR data enabled us to map the SSR markers to the Z chromosome. By adjusting input parameters based on these data, we were able to use Mapmaker software to construct a linkage map. This strategy takes advantage of co-dominant markers for positional cloning of genes on the Z chromosome. We localized sch to the Z chromosome relative to six SSR markers and one PCR marker, covering a total of 76·1 cM. The sch mutation is an important sex-linked visible mutation widely used in breeding of commercial silkworms (e.g. male silkworm selection rearing). Localization of the sch gene may prove helpful in cloning the gene and developing strains for marker-assisted selection in silkworm breeding.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of early feed restriction (ER) on morphology and gene expression of lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Newly hatched crossbred broiler chickens were allocated into control and ER groups, the latter being free-fed on alternate days from hatch to 14 days of age (14 d), followed by ad libitum feeding as the control group until 63 d. The lateral gastrocnemius muscle was taken at 14 and 63 d, respectively for myofibre typing by both myosin ATPase staining and relative quantification of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA for slow-twitch (SM), red fast-twitch (FRM) and white fast-twitch (FWM) myofibres. The body weight and lateral gastrocnemius weight were significantly lower in the ER group, accompanied by significantly reduced serum triiodothyronine. The ER group exhibited significantly higher SM and FRM MyHC expression at 14 d, but lower SM expression at 63 d. Myosin ATPase staining revealed a similar pattern. The percentage of SM was higher at 14 d while lower at 63 d in the ER group. These morphological changes were accompanied by changes of mRNA expression for growth-related genes. The ER group expressed lower insulin-like growth factoar I (IGF-I) and higher IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) at 14 d, yet significantly increased growth hormone receptor and IGF-IR mRNA at 63 d. These results indicate that ER may delay the slow to fast myofibre conversion as an immediate effect, but would result in a lower percentage of slow fibres owing to compensatory growth in the long term, which involves changes of mRNA expression for the growth-related genes in the muscle.
Pancreases obtained from 1–9-day-old rabbits were digested with 1 mg/ml ?? collagenase and cultivated with low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). The cells were subcultured almost until confluence. They were identified as pancreatic stem/progenitor cells using two methods: an immunohistochemical staining technique and the response of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after β-cell induction. Results showed that the cells of rabbits acquired strong proliferation ability, and expressed the markers of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells: PDX-1, CK19 and nestin. After β-cell induction for 2 days, 20% of cells were dithizone (DTZ) positive, rapidly increasing to 80% after 6 days. Insulin secretion was stimulated by a high glucose concentration (26 mmol/l). These powerful tests demonstrated that isolated and cultivated cells in rabbits were pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. This result has not yet been reported elsewhere.
A joule level of XeF(C-A) laser optically pumped by a sectioned
surface discharge was developed. The irradiative intensity of pumping
source was diagnosed by calculating XeF2 photo-dissociation
wave evolvement which was photographed by a framing camera. The photon
flux in the wavelength region of 140 to 170nm is about 5 ×
1023 photon s−1cm−2, that
corresponds to the irradiative brightness temperature of more than 25000
K. The laser experiments were carried out in different conditions. The
maximum laser output energy of 2.5 J was obtained with the total
conversion efficiency of 0.1%.
Piezoelectric ceramics with TC > 500 °C were projected in the perovskite BiInO3–PbTiO3 (BIPT) system based on their low tolerance factor (∼0.884). However, a stable perovskite phase could be synthesized only when the PbTiO3 (PT) content was greater than 75%. Furthermore, the large tetragonality (c/a > 1.08) and low electrical resistivity made the ceramics difficult to pole. Niobium-modified BIPT ceramics with PT contents of 80% and 85% were found to possess significantly lower dielectric loss at elevated temperatures, making it possible to polarize the materials. Piezoelectric properties were measured for a BIPT85–1.5 mol% Nb composition with a Curie temperature of 542 °C; the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient and coercive field were found to be 60 pC/N and 125 kV/cm, respectively.
Myofibre composition in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Erhualian (EHL) and Large White (LW) pigs was investigated by determining the ratios of mRNA abundances of four myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms (MyHC I, MyHC 2a, MyHC 2x and MyHC 2b) using multiplex RT-PCR. The relationship between expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α coactivator-lα (PGC-lα) mRNAs and changes ofmyofibre type composition during postnatal growth from 3 to 180 days of age were analysed. At 3 days of age, proportions of MyHC I, 2a and 2x fibres were high while only a few MyHC 2b fibres were differentiated. Dramatic changes were observed from day 3 to day 20 with significantly decreased MyHC I, 2a and 2x fibres but abrupt increases in MyHC 2b fibres in both breeds of pigs. Breed difference was exhibited only from day 90, with higher MyHC 2b but less MyHC I and 2a expression in LW pigs. Developmental pattern of GHR mRNA expression in LD muscle coincided with that of MyHC 2b, with LW pigs expressing higher abundance of GHR mRNA. PGC-lα mRNA expression followed distinct patterns in the two breeds of pigs, a higher level of PGC-lα mRNA being expressed in LD muscle of EHL pigs, the breed that possessed more oxidative fibres (MyHC I and MyHC 2a).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.