The impact of Palmer amaranth on mechanical harvesting, ginning, and fiber quality in dryland cotton was documented. Only the highest Palmer amaranth density (3,260 weeds/ha) reduced lint and seed yields. However, all weed densities increased harvesting time 2- to 3.5-fold. Two factors increased the time required for stripper harvesting: slower ground speeds due to large weeds and work stoppages that required hand removal of weed stems lodged in the harvester. Ninety-eight percent of the weedy plant material was discarded in the field by the harvester, and the remaining 2% was successfully removed in ginning and lint-cleaning processes. Weed infestations did not result in any differences in moisture content of seed cotton, ginning time, fiber quality, or the percentage of cleaned lint.