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The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
To perform a review of the collective experience of all hospital-based helicopter ambulances in the state of North Carolina for compliance with utilization review criteria.
Flight records of the six members of the North Carolina Aeromedical Affiliation for the months of November and December 1989 were compared with utilization review criteria by an independent reviewer. A secondary review was performed by a staff member for each service. Scene responses and patients flown to a hospital other than the sponsor were evaluated.
All six hospital-based helicopter services in North Carolina.
Type of participants:
All available flight records for November and December 1989.
Measurements and main results:
Of 756 transports, 747 flight records were available for review. Initial review demonstrated compliance with the criteria for 713 (95.4%) patients; secondary review showed compliance for 18 of 34 flights not meeting initial review, for an overall compliance rate of 97.9%. Compliance rates for scene responses and transports taken to a hospital other than the sponsoring facility were 96.6% and 94.1%, respectively.
Review of all flights over a period of two months by all six hospital-based helicopter services in North Carolina using utilization review criteria demonstrated a very high rate of compliance with the established criteria.
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