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Emotion dysregulation is defined as patterns of emotional experience or expression that interfere with goal-directed activity. This paper considers this functionalist definition from a developmental perspective with the goal of elaborating this approach with respect to its central questions. What are the goals that are impeded by emotionally dysregulated responding, and what alternative goals might motivate emotion dysregulation? What are the developmental processes by which these goals take shape, and what are the influences of the family context, and especially of central relationships in the family, in their emergence? How does this functionalist account address the complex interaction of experience and developing biological processes that also influence emotion regulation and dysregulation? Drawing on research literature concerning children at risk for affective psychopathology and considering relevant examples of the interaction of biology and context, this discussion offers a portrayal of emotion dysregulation as a biologically dynamic, experience-based aspect of adaptation to environments and relationships that, in conditions of risk for the emergence of developmental psychopathology, motivates patterns of emotional responding that serve immediate coping often at the cost of long-term maladaptation. Implications for emotions theory and the study of developmental psychopathology are also considered.
Background: Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the synaptic scaffolding gene SHANK2 are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, their impact on the function of human neurons is unknown. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from affected individuals permits generation of live neurons to answer this question. Methods: We generated iPSCs by reprogramming dermal fibroblasts of neurotypic and ASD-affected donors. To isolate the effect of SHANK2, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to knock out SHANK2 in control iPSCs and correct a heterozygous nonsense mutation in ASD-affected donor iPSCs. We then derived cortical neurons from SOX1+ neural precursor cells differentiated from these iPSCs. Using a novel assay that overcomes line-to-line variability, we compared neuronal morphology, total synapse number, and electrophysiological properties between SHANK2 mutants and controls. Results: Relative to controls, SHANK2 mutant neurons have increased dendrite complexity, dendrite length, total synapse number (1.5-2-fold), and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) frequency (3-7.6-fold). Conclusions: ASD-associated heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SHANK2 increase synaptic connectivity among human neurons by increasing synapse number and sEPSC frequency. This is partially supported by increased dendrite length and complexity, providing evidence that SHANK2 functions as a suppressor of dendrite branching during neurodevelopment.
To investigate the effects of both non-meltwater and meltwater-related post-depositional processes on chemical species within the snow–firn pack, a research program, the Program for Glacier Processes Investigation, was initiated in July 2002 by the Tien Shan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The seasonal variability of the ionic concentrations in surface snow samples and ion elution behavior in the snow–firn pack were assessed from surface samples collected year-round and 1011 samples collected from a snow pit at weekly intervals from September 2003 through September 2004. The results indicate that elevated ionic concentrations in spring and summer result from Asian dust-storm-derived aerosol input and other aerosols entrained in precipitation. Potential sources of these chemical species are explored using correlation and factor analyses. The elution sequence through the snow–firn pack was determined to be SO42– >Ca2+> Na+>NO3− >Cl−>K+> Mg2+ >NH4+. The elution of ions at the sampling site was found to be driven primarily by air temperature and became evident when a diurnal mean temperature of –3.6˚C was attained. At 0.3˚C all of the year-round new ionic input was leached from the snow.
Malnutrition is common in children with CHD and is likely to place them at an increased risk for adverse surgical outcomes. We sought to evaluate the impact of preoperative malnutrition on outcomes after paediatric cardiac surgery.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients from age 0 to 5 years undergoing cardiac surgery at Seattle Children’s Hospital from 2006 to 2015. We used regression modelling to examine the impact of malnutrition on surgical outcomes.
We found a non-linear relationship between low height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores and mortality after surgery. In the range of z-score ⩽−2, each additional unit decrease in height-for-age or weight-for-age z-score was associated with a 2.9 or 2.1% increased risk for mortality, respectively. Each unit decrease in height-for-age z-score was associated with a 1.2% increased risk for cardiac arrest, 1.1% increased risk for infection, and an average of 1.7 additional hours of mechanical ventilation, 6 hours longer ICU stay, and 13 hours longer hospital stay. Each unit decrease in weight-for-age z-score was associated with a 0.7% increased risk for cardiac arrest, 0.8% increased risk for infection, and an average of 1.9 additional hours of mechanical ventilation and 5.3 additional hours of ICU stay.
This study is unique in demonstrating a significant association between malnutrition and 30-day mortality and other adverse outcomes after paediatric cardiac surgery in a mixed population of CHD patients. By evaluating nutritional status as a continuous variable, we were able to clearly distinguish the point at which malnutrition begins to affect mortality.
We examined the effect of a full bladder on proportions of diagnostic ultrasound (US) studies in children with suspected appendicitis. We also examined the effect of a full bladder on proportions of fully visualized ovaries on US in children with suspected appendicitis.
We conducted a retrospective health record review of children aged 2-17 years presenting to a tertiary pediatric emergency department (ED) with suspected appendicitis who had an ultrasound performed. We compared proportions of diagnostic US studies in children with full and sub-optimally filled bladders. We also compared proportions of ovarian visualization in females with full and sub-optimally filled bladders.
678 children were included in our final analysis. The proportion of diagnostic US studies did not vary significantly between groups with a full (132/283, 47%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 38%-56%) or sub-optimally filled bladder (205/395, 52%, 95% CI 47%-57%)(p=0.17). Rates of ovarian visualization were higher in females with a full bladder (196/205, 96%, 95% CI 93%-99%) compared to those with a sub-optimally filled bladder (180/223, 81%, 95% CI 76%-86%) (p<0.01).
Administrators and clinical decision makers should consider removing routine bladder filling practice from current pediatric appendicitis protocols in males and in pre-pubertal females where ovarian pathology is not suspected. Selective bladder filling prior to US should be performed in females when ovarian pathology is suspected.
We have shown that high efficiency solar cells can be obtained by incorporating materials of different band gaps in a multijunction configuration. This configuration gives rise to high efficiency due to spectrum splitting as well as superior stability due to thin top cells.
We have fabricated multijunction solar cells and acheived a 13% conversion efficiency using 1.7eV a-Si:F:H and 1.5 eV a-Si:Ge:F:H materials in a three-cell triple configuration. This device was deposited onto a stainless steel substrate coated with a back reflector; it also incorporates a microcrystalline p+ layer.
The physical properties of each of the solar cell layers and their role in the device physics of a high efficiency solar cell will be described.
An x-ray technique has been used to measure the diffusion of phosphorus in crystalline Ni/amorphous NiPx and amorphous NiPx/NiPy multilayer thin films produced by electrodeposition. The films have repeat lengths in the range 30–80Å and P contents x, y < 25at.%. A value for the interdiffusivity in amorphous NiPx is derived from measurements on fully amorphous films. The behaviour of partially crystalline films is described in terms of phosphorus diffusion into the nickel grain boundaries.
We have studied the spectral dependence of various types of amorphous silicon-germanium (a-Si:Ge) alloy p-i-n solar cells in which the band gap of the intrinsic (i) layer is profiled between 1.4 and 1.7 eV. It is observed that the cell performance depends critically on the shape of the profile, especially for red-light illumination where the device output is found to vary by more than a factor of two. We have correlated the experimental data with optical absorption and dynamic internal collection efficiency (DICE) measurements. We have also fabricated two-cell tandem and three-cell triple devices by incorporating a-Si:Ge alloy with multiple band-gap profiles in the bottom cell and achieved 13.0% and 13.7% conversion efficiencies, respectively. These are the highest efficiency amorphous silicon-based alloy solar cells reported to date.
Epitaxial misfit has been characterized in Ni/Cu/Si (100) as a function of Ni film thickness using wafer curvature measurements. This strain can be related to measurements of magnetic anisotropy made in the deposition system using the magneto-optic Kerr effect. Films were deposited using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with varying Ni epilayer thickness between 10 and 1000Å. The change in wafer curvature due to misfit strain was measured using optical interferometry and the strain was calculated using Stoney’s equation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize misfit dislocations at the Ni/Cu interface. It has been determined that misfit strain can have a very strong effect on magnetic anisotropy, particularly in the regime between the critical thickness and complete misfit accommodation, where strain has been found to decrease significantly as a function of film thickness. A critical strain has been determined at which a transition in the direction of magnetization easy axis from perpendicular to the film to in the film plane occurs. This discovery allows the use of Kerr effect measurements to characterize misfit strain in situ.
Orientation selective grain growth in thin films arises due to anisotropy in materials properties. For continuous thin films, there are at least two orientation dependent driving forces for grain growth: (i) surface and interface energy anisotropy; (ii) strain energy anisotropy (both elastic and plastic). In fcc metals, the preferred growth of grains with (111) texture occurs due to their low surface and interface energy. Stresses in thin films arise during deposition and as a result of post-deposition annealing. A texture dependence of strain energy density arises in biaxially strained thin films due to anisotropy of elastic properties and/or orientation-dependent yield stresses. For most fcc metals, the strain energy driving force promotes the growth of (001) grains due to minimization of the combined elastic and plastic strain energy. The magnitudes of the orientation dependent driving forces for grain growth depend on the characteristics and processing conditions of the film and substrate. We have performed grain growth experiments for Ag films on single crystal Ni on MgO; Ag films on plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 on MgO; Ag films on oxidized Si; and Ni films on oxidized Si. The texture resulting from grain growth in films of different thicknesses and deposited at different temperatures were determined, and the results are presented in the form of texture maps. The texture which dominates as a result of grain growth can be understood through the use of texture maps and compares well with analytic models for texture development during grain growth in thin films.
The themes of moral self, identity, and character underscore the complex foundations of mature moral conduct. Adults act from a sense of self in which moral integrity may be an important component. They respond to everyday ethical challenges by enlisting identities – professional, familial, religious – that provide guidance. Adults are also integrated into networks of social relationships that motivate moral conduct, in communities that may either support or undermine acting on the basis of moral character. It is not surprising that the influences on moral self, identity, and character have inspired centuries of philosophical reflection on the nature of human conduct and, more recently, nearly a century of intensive psychological study. The themes of this volume are genuinely a lifespan developmental concern.
Well … almost lifespan. This is because despite concerted interest in the origins of moral character in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, developmental influences in infancy and early childhood have been long neglected. Moral development in classic theories describes how the child abandons the egocentric, authoritarian orientation of the early years in favor of a more mature, humanistic orientation. As a consequence, researchers have naturally been more interested in the developmental influences and transitions of middle childhood and beyond. The purpose of this chapter is to argue, however, that the time is long overdue for a reconsideration of the foundations of moral character in early childhood.
The capacity to manage emotion is based on the growth of self-regulatory capacities in the early years, but is also affected by situational demands, influences from other people, and the child's goals for regulating emotion in a particular setting. For most children growing up in supportive contexts, the growth of emotional regulation is associated with enhanced psychosocial well-being and socioemotional competence. But for children who are at risk for the development of psychopathology owing to environmental stresses or intrinsic vulnerability (or their interaction), emotional regulation often entails inherent trade-offs that make nonoptimal strategics of managing emotion expectable, perhaps inevitable, in a context of difficult environmental demands and conflicting emotional goals. This analysis discusses how emotional regulation in children at risk may simultaneously foster both resiliency and vulnerability by considering how emotion is managed when children (a) are living with a parent who is depressed, (b) witness or experience domestic violence, or (c) are temperamentally inhibited when encountering novel challenges. In each case, the child's efforts to manage emotion may simultaneously buffer against certain stresses while also enhancing the child's vulnerability to other risks and demands. This double-edged sword of emotional regulation in conditions of risk for children cautions against using “optimal” emotional regulation as an evaluative standard for such children or assuming that emotional regulation necessarily improves psychosocial well-being. It also suggests how the study of emotional regulation must consider the goals for regulating emotion and the contexts in which those goals are sought.
Surface waters are the receiving environment for all activities within a catchment, and integrate processes across temporal and spatial scales. Estimates suggest that the rate of loss of freshwater species is five times that of species in temperate terrestrial environments, and rivals the rate found in tropical forests (Revenga et al. 2005). Threats to aquatic ecosystems come from a wide variety of land uses, including agriculture, urbanization, mining, forestry, impoundment, and others. Efforts to protect important characteristics of freshwater environments focus on physical and chemical aspects, such as water quality, temperature, channel bedforms, and instream flow needs. The conservation of fish (with a predominant focus on salmonids in northern temperate regions) and protection of aquatic biodiversity in general are often assumed to be served by this focus on the abiotic subsystem.
In forested ecosystems, sustainability of aquatic ecosystem values has been the subject of an enormous effort to determine what land-use practices most affect these systems, and how those impacts might be mitigated (Bormann et al. 1974; McEachern et al. 2006; Prepas et al. 2006; Richardson 2008). The specific mechanisms by which land uses, such as forestry, affect catchments often interact with each other along multiple pathways, for instance concomitant changes in light regimes, temperature, wood and organic matter inputs, etc. (Richardson and Danehy 2007; Thompson et al. 2008). Measures to conserve biodiversity and other ecosystem services need to consider the non-independence of these multiple processes.
Communities contain a diversity of species and a spectrum of life forms. A consequence of evolutionary processes is that lists of species from different communities tell us almost nothing about how similar they are ecologically. On the other hand, by quantifying the life-history traits represented, we can discern similarities and differences among communities and gain an understanding of the functional relationships between traits and habitats. In response to Southwood's (1977) contention that habitat provides the templet upon which evolution forges characteristic life-history strategies, we are interested in the extent to which life-history traits of macroinvertebrates can be directly mapped onto stream habitat axes. More recently, stream researchers have used the metaphor of environmental filters (Poff, 1997) that can eliminate certain traits and produce similar trait compositions in similar habitats (Statzner, Dolédec & Hugueny, 2004). Trait-specific selective forces along environmental gradients may act over evolutionary time, as Southwood (1977) contended, or over an ecological time scale, selecting for successful strategists from the potential pool of colonists.
The earliest categorization of species traits in stream ecology related to trophic role. Cummins (1974) identified grazer-scrapers, fine particle collectors (gatherers or filterers), large particle shredders and predators. Stream ecologists now use this trophic categorization to focus on the similarities and differences of communities in different parts of the world (e.g. Winterbourn, Rounick & Cowie, 1981; Thompson & Townsend, 2000; Fenoglio, Bo & Cucco, 2004), in different parts of the river continuum (e.g. Vannote et al. 1980; Grubaugh, Wallace & Houston, 1996) and in different kinds of terrestrial setting (e.g. Thompson & Townsend, 2000; Woodward & Hildrew, 2002).