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The objective of the present study is to summarise trends in under- and over-nutrition in pregnant women on the Thailand–Myanmar border. Refugees contributed data from 1986 to 2016 and migrants from 1999 to 2016 for weight at first antenatal consultation. BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) data were available during 2004–2016 when height was routinely measured. Risk factors for low and high BMI were analysed for <18·5 kg/m2 or ≥23 kg/m2, respectively. A total of 48 062 pregnancies over 30 years were available for weight analysis and 14 646 pregnancies over 13 years (2004–2016) had BMI measured in first trimester (<14 weeks’ gestational age). Mean weight at first antenatal consultation in any trimester increased over the 30-year period by 2·0 to 5·2 kg for all women. First trimester BMI has been increasing on average by 0·5 kg/m2 for refugees and 0·6 kg/m2 for migrants, every 5 years. The proportion of women with low BMI in the first trimester decreased from 16·7 to 12·7 % for refugees and 23·1 to 20·2 % for migrants, whereas high BMI increased markedly from 16·9 to 33·2 % for refugees and 12·3 to 28·4 % for migrants. Multivariate analysis demonstrated low BMI as positively associated with being Burman, Muslim, primigravid, having malaria during pregnancy and smoking, and negatively associated with refugee as opposed to migrant status. High BMI was positively associated with being Muslim and literate, and negatively associated with age, primigravida, malaria, anaemia and smoking. Mean GWG was 10·0 (sd 3·4), 9·5 (sd 3·6) and 8·3 (sd 4·3) kg, for low, normal and high WHO BMI categories for Asians, respectively.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI) of dementia are important determinants of caregiver burden, while caregiver coping styles and competences can relieve burden. Caregivers differ in coping with the demands made on them and in experienced burden. What changes in caregivers explain recovery from burden, and which caregiver characteristics predict recovery from burden over time, and does treatment make a difference?
This study into recovery from burden was a secondary analysis of data collected in a formerly conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the integrated reactivation and rehabilitation (IRR) programme in a psychiatric-skilled nursing home, compared to usual care (UC; i.e. day care, assisted living arrangements, and nursing home wards). For this secondary analysis, longitudinal data on persons with dementia and caregivers were used from baseline (T1), end of treatment (T2), and at nine months (T3).
Caregivers with an improved sense of competence (SCS) who care for persons with dementia with a decreased severity of NPI have the highest chance of recovering from burden (CSI). Caregivers with a tendency to feel involved with others and sympathize with others (affiliation, ICL-R) have a slightly lower probability of improvement with respect to their sense of competence in the short term. The number of improved caregivers was higher in IRR than UC.
Recovery depends on both an improved sense of competence and a decreased severity of NPI. Combined interventions that address both NPI and focus on enhancing caregiver's sense of competence have added value when it comes to decreasing caregiver burden.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
There is a growing interest in using cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) with people who have Asperger syndrome and comorbid mental health problems.
To examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an Asperger syndrome population is feasible and likely to be efficacious.
Using a randomised assessor-blind trial, 52 individuals with Asperger syndrome were randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. After 24 weeks, those in the waiting-list control arm received treatment, while those initially randomised to treatment were followed up for 24 weeks.
The conversion rate for this trial was high (1.6:1), while attrition was 13%. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between those randomised to the treatment arm compared with those randomised to the waiting-list control arm on the primary outcome measure, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety.
Trials of psychological therapies with this population are feasible. Larger definitive trials are now needed.
Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental trials. The most common indication for use was musculoskeletal conditions, and the most commonly evaluated outcome categories among experimental trials were pain and cardiovascular parameters. The limited number of controlled trials and the breadth of indications for use, outcome categories, and types of acupuncture evaluated present challenges for future systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials addressing the most common clinical uses of acupuncture, and using consistent and clinically relevant outcomes, to inform conclusions regarding the efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among human resource development (HRD) efforts, top management support, and employees’ attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) in the Korean context. Based on the Korean Human Capital Corporate Panel survey data, 3,899 responses from 159 large companies were analyzed by adopting hierarchical multiple regression analysis and a regression-based path analysis. The results indicated that HRD efforts positively affected organizational commitment through job satisfaction. In addition, job satisfaction had a moderated mediation effect on the interaction of HRD efforts and top management support on organization commitment. Finally, top management support moderates the relationship between HRD efforts and employees’ attitudes such that increased top management support for HRD efforts improves employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Examine relationships of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns with BMI, sex, age and acculturation among Mexican Americans.
Cross-sectional. Participants completed culturally tailored Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Indices. Multivariable mixed-effect Poisson regression models compared food pattern index scores and dietary intake of specific foods by BMI, sex, age and acculturation defined by language preference and generational status.
Participants recruited from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study, Texas–Mexico border region, between 2008 and 2011.
Mexican-American males and females aged 18–97 years (n 1250).
Participants were primarily female (55·3 %), overweight or obese (85·7 %), preferred Spanish language (68·0 %) and first-generation status (60·3 %). Among first-generation participants, bilingual participants were less likely to have a healthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (rate ratio (RR)=0·79, P=0·0218). This association was also found in males (RR=0·81, P=0·0098). Preferred English-speaking females were less likely to consume healthy foods than preferred Spanish-speaking females (RR=0·84, P=0·0293). Among second-generation participants, preferred English-speaking participants were more likely to report a higher unhealthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (RR=1·23, P=0·0114). Higher unhealthy eating patterns were also found in females who preferred English v. females who preferred Spanish (RR=1·23, P=0·0107) or were bilingual (RR=1·26, P=0·0159). Younger, male participants were more likely to have a higher unhealthy eating pattern. BMI and diabetes status were not significantly associated with healthy or unhealthy eating patterns.
Acculturation, age, sex and education are associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. Nutrition interventions for Mexican Americans should tailor approaches by these characteristics.
Mapping combined with till provenance studies have resulted in a re-appraisal of the pre-Devensian glacial stratigraphy of Norfolk, England. The traditional model invoked two formations, a North Sea Drift Formation (NSDF) overlain by a Lowestoft Formation, formed by co-existing ice-sheets originating in Scandinavia and Northern Britain respectively. The NSDF included three diamictons, the First, Second and Third Cromer tills. The Briton’s Lane Sands and Gravels were considered to overlie the Lowestoft Formation. However, our work has shown this stratigraphy to be untenable, and we propose a model of several glaciations instead of co-existing ice-sheets. In our revised stratigraphy, the oldest formation, the Happisburgh Formation (including the Happisburgh or First Cromer Till) includes massive, sandy tills derived from northern Britain. The overlying Lowestoft Formation, including the Second Cromer (Walcott) Till is confirmed as derived from the west, introducing much Jurassic material as well as Chalk. The Sheringham Cliffs Formation includes both brown sandy tills (the Third Cromer Till) and ‘marly drift’, in a variety of tectonic relationships, and derived from the north and NNW. Finally the Briton’s Lane Formation is the only formation to include Scandinavian erratics. Dating of the four formations is at varying levels of confidence, with the Lowestoft Formation most confidently confirmed as MIS 12. The Happisburgh Formation is believed to represent an earlier glaciation, and MIS 16 is proposed. The Sheringham Cliffs Formation is tentatively believed to date from MIS 10, and the Briton’s Lane Formation is assigned to MIS 6.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
Background: A large body of research has identified that many therapists do not use research to inform their practice, but few studies investigate the reasons behind this. Aims: The current study seeks to understand what sources therapists use to inform their practice and why they are chosen. Method: Thirty-three interviews with psychological therapists in the UK were undertaken. These were transcribed and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Two superordinate themes emerged. The former focused on the nature of evidence and the latter described why certain sources were used to make clinical decisions. When discussing evidence, participants felt that research studies, specifically Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), used unrepresentative samples. Therapists felt that research other than RCTs, particularly qualitative research, was important. Therapist specific factors were felt to be as, or more, important than the technique used to treat patients. When discussing the sources they used, therapists preferred to use their clinical experience or their patients’ experience to make clinical decisions. Theoretical or practical information was preferred to empirical research. The presentation of information was felt to be important to encourage the implementation of research, and therapists also felt tools such as outcome measures and manuals were too rigid to be useful. Finally, patients’ choice of treatment was felt to be important in treatment decisions. Conclusions: The views of therapists were heterogeneous, but this study highlighted some of the barriers to closing the gap between science and practice. This knowledge can be used to increase the translation of science into practice.
It is generally accepted that archaic humans of the African later Early and early Middle Pleistocene constituted the source population for anatomically modern humans. Due to limited fossil and archaeological records, however, relatively little is known about the morphology, behaviour and ecology of these presumed ancestors of modern humans. Fragmentary fossils (variously attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, H. rhodesiensis and H. helmei) from across Africa suggest that these archaic humans were both taller and more massive than their extant modern human descendants in this region, and perhaps had a body shape that was stockier and less ‘nilotic’ than seen among extant sub-Saharan Africans. Fragmentary fossils attributed to Homo sapiens, on the other hand, appear to represent individuals closer in body size to the means of recent sub-Saharan Africans. Since body size and shape are critical to the ecology, energetics and thermoregulatory adaptations of early humans, these differences in morphology may signal important adaptive changes at the time of the origins of modern humans. Comparative analyses of femoral and orbital dimensions support the claim that Middle Pleistocene Africans were of greater body size (both stature and mass) and had greater mass/stature ratios than modern Africans, and support the claim that early African H. sapiens were of smaller body size than their Middle Pleistocene ancestors.