Twenty-two percent of 4,878 neonates had at least one HAI. The overall incidence density was 24.9 per 1,000 patient-days, and 28.1% of all HAIs were maternally acquired. HAI rates ranged from 12.3% in the group with a birth weight (BW) of more than 2,500 g to 51.9% in the group with a BW of 1,000 g or less. The main HAIs were bloodstream infection (BSI) and pneumonia. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacter species, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the main pathogens. Forty percent of all deaths were related to HAI. Central venous catheter (CVC)-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days ranged from 17.3 (BW, 1,501 to 2,500 g; device utilization [DU], 0.11) to 34.9 (BW, ≤ 1,000 g; DU, 34.92). Ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1,000 ventilator-days ranged from 7.0 (BW, ≤ 1,000 g; DU, 0.34) to 9.2 (BW, 1,001 to 1,500 g; DU, 0.14).