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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Cardiac radiation exposure following anti-cancer (CA) thoracic radiotherapy (RT) treatment increases risk of heart failure in a dose-dependent manner with a predominantly restrictive cardiomyopathy phenotype and is characterized by a diffuse fibrosis within the myocardium. The peak oxygen pulse (O2Pulse) determined at cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the quotient of oxygen consumption (VO2) divided by the heart rate (HR) at peak exercise. Through deduction of the Fick equation (VO2 = cardiac output (CO) x arteriovenous oxygen difference) it provides a noninvasive estimate of the stroke volume response to exercise. Knowledge of the relationship between cardiac radiation dose and O2Pulse may provide mechanistic insight into the cardiac reserve of the CA survivor following thoracic RT. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients without a history of cardiovascular disease with a history of thoracic RT for CA treatment with significant incidental heart exposure (≥5 Gray (Gy) to ≥10% of the heart volume) underwent treadmill CPET to determine cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to quantify central hemodynamics and for myocardial tissue characterization. The mean cardiac radiation dose (MCRD) and %volume of heart dose was determined from dose-volume histograms reflective of the dose contributions from all RT treatments for each patient. The oxygen pulse (milliliters (mL) of O2 per heart beat) was determined by dividing the absolute VO2 by the HR (beats per minute, bpm) at peak exercise and reported as %-predicted values to account for age and gender differences. Data are reported as number (%) or median (interquartile range). A stepwise multivariate linear regression model was created from significant univariate RT and CMR variables to determine independent predictors of %O2Pulse. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty patients (age = 63 [57-67] years, 18 [60%] female, 2.0 [0.1-28.7] years since completion of RT) underwent study procedures. The peak VO2=1376 mL·min-1 (62% of predicted) and peak HR = 150 (122-164) bpm resulted in a peak O2Pulse of 9.2 mL/beat (82% of predicted). The MCRD = 5.6 [3.7-17.8] Gy was inversely associated with %O2Pulse at univariate analysis (R = −0.514, p < .01), but was not retained at multivariate analysis. The CMR-derived CO ([4.9 (4.09-5.90) Liters/minute], β = +.374, p < .01), CMR-extracellular volume ([ECV, 26.9 (24.8-29.2)%], β = −.536, p < .01), and volume of the heart exposed to ≥30 Gy ([2.5 (0-15.0)Gy], (β = −.345, p = .01) were retained in the model (R2 = .709, F(3,19) = 15.438, p < .001) and were independent predictors of the %O2Pulse. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In patients with significant heart exposure following RT, %O2Pulse (a surrogate of stroke volume response to exercise) is inversely associated with cardiac radiation dose and is related to central hemodynamics (CO) and markers of diffuse fibrosis (ECV).
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide.
To examine the: (a) 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV MDD; (b) proportion aware that they have a problem needing treatment and who want care; (c) proportion of the latter receiving treatment; and (d) proportion of such treatment meeting minimal standards.
Representative community household surveys from 21 countries as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
Of 51 547 respondents, 4.6% met 12-month criteria for DSM-IV MDD and of these 56.7% reported needing treatment. Among those who recognised their need for treatment, most (71.1%) made at least one visit to a service provider. Among those who received treatment, only 41.0% received treatment that met minimal standards. This resulted in only 16.5% of all individuals with 12-month MDD receiving minimally adequate treatment.
Only a minority of participants with MDD received minimally adequate treatment: 1 in 5 people in high-income and 1 in 27 in low-/lower-middle-income countries. Scaling up care for MDD requires fundamental transformations in community education and outreach, supply of treatment and quality of services.
Oxyspirura petrowi is a heteroxenous parasitic nematode that has been reported in high prevalences from birds in the Order Galliformes experiencing population declines in the USA. There is a paucity of information regarding the natural history O. petrowi, including the life cycle and effects of infection on wild bird populations. In order to study the life cycle of this parasite, we collected plains lubber grasshoppers (Brachystola magna) from a field location in Mitchell County, Texas. We found third-stage larvae (L3) in 37.9% (66/174) B. magna. We determined that they were O. petrowi through morphological comparison of L3 from experimentally infected Acheta domesticus and by sequence analysis. Then, we showed that B. magna are a potential intermediate hosts for O. petrowi infections in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) in a laboratory setting by experimental infection. We first detected shedding of eggs in feces using a fecal float technique 52 days post infection. In addition, we recovered 87 O. petrowi from experimentally infected northern bobwhites. Although we detected shedding in feces, recovery of eggs was low (>5 eggs/g). Future work is needed to understand shedding routes and shedding patterns of northern bobwhites infected with O. petrowi.
Aim 1 of this study was to examine the developmental changes in typically developing English-speaking children's syntactically based sentence interpretation abilities and sensitivity to word order. Aim 2 was to determine the psychometric standing of the novel sentence interpretation task developed for this study, because we wish to use it later with children with specific language impairment. Children listened to semantically implausible sentences in which noun animacy and the natural affordance between the nouns were removed, thus controlling for event probability. Using this novel “whatdunit?” agent selection task, 256 children 7–11 years old listened to two structures with canonical word order and two with noncanonical word order. After each sentence, children selected as quickly as possible the picture of the noun they believed was “doing the action.” Children interpreted sentences with canonical word order with greater accuracy and speed than those with noncanonical word order. Older children (mean age = 10 years, 8 months) were more accurate and faster than younger children (mean age = 8 years, 1 month) across all sentence forms. Both older and younger children demonstrated similar error patterns across sentence type. The “whatdunit?” task also proved to have strong validity and reliability, making it suitable for studies with children with specific language impairment.
The addition of carbohydrate to drinks designed to have a role in rehydrating the body is commonplace. The gastric emptying and fluid uptake characteristics following repeated ingestion of drinks with high and low glucose concentrations were examined in eight subjects (three male and five female). Following a 13 h fluid restriction period, the subjects ingested a volume of test solution amounting to 3 % of the initial body mass over a period of 60 min. Test drinks were 2 and 10 % glucose–electrolyte solutions with osmolalities of 189 (sd 3) and 654 (sd 3) mOsm/kg, respectively. The initial bolus of each test solution contained 10 g of 2H2O. Blood samples were collected throughout drinking and for 60 min afterwards. Gastric volumes were determined via gastric aspiration at 15 min intervals for 120 min. No difference between trials in total stomach volume was observed until 30 min after the ingestion of the first bolus of test drink, but blood 2H concentration was increased during both trials 10 min after ingestion of the first bolus. Blood 2H concentration was greater at this time point during the 2 % glucose trial than during the 10 % glucose trial and remained higher for the duration of the trial with the exception of one time point. Urine volume at the end of the trial was greater in the 2 % glucose trial than in the 10 % glucose trial. It is concluded that the reduced overall rate of fluid uptake following ingestion of the 10 % glucose solution was due largely to a relatively slow rate of gastric emptying.
Solar-type variability is enhanced in short period close binaries with increased dynamo driven activity. This activity is studied in our analysis of recent light curves taken of the newly discovered eclipsing binaries GSC 2764 1417 (And), GSC 3355 0394 (Per) and GSC 2537 0775 (CVn).
We investigated the relation of two dimensions of attentional functioning (sustained auditory attention and resource capacity/allocation) and complex sentence comprehension of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age. Twenty-six school-age children with SLI and 26 TD peers completed an auditory continuous performance task (ACPT, measure of sustained attention), a concurrent verbal processing-storage task (measure of resource capacity/allocation), and a picture pointing comprehension task. Correlation analyses were run to determine the association between the measures of attention and sentence comprehension. The SLI group performed more poorly than the TD group across all tasks. For the SLI group, even after removing the effects of age, ACPT score and performance on the concurrent processing-storage task still significantly correlated with complex sentence comprehension. Sustained attention also correlated with simple sentence comprehension. Neither attention variable correlated with sentence comprehension in the TD children. For children with SLI, the comprehension of complex grammar appears to involve significant use of sustained attention and resource capacity/allocation. Even simple sentence comprehension requires significant auditory vigilance. In the case of TD children, neither complex nor simple sentence comprehension appears to invoke significant attentional involvement.
The change in blood and plasma volume following ingestion of glucose solutions of varying concentrations was estimated in twelve healthy male volunteers. Subjects consumed, within a 5 min period, 600 ml of a solution containing 0, 2, 5 or 10 % glucose with osmolalities of 0 (sd 0), 111 (sd 1), 266 (sd 7) and 565 (sd 5) mOsm/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected over the course of 1 h after ingestion at intervals of 10 min. After ingestion of the 2 % glucose solution, plasma volume increased from baseline levels at 20 min. Plasma volume decreased from baseline levels at 10 and 60 min after ingestion of the 10 % glucose solution. Heart rate was elevated at 10 and 60 min after ingestion of the 10 % glucose solution and decreased at 30 and 40 min after ingestion of the 2 % glucose solution relative to the average heart rate recorded before drinking. It is concluded that ingestion of hypertonic, energy-dense glucose solutions results in a decrease in plasma and extracellular fluid volume, most likely due to the net secretion of water into the intestinal lumen.
Currently, positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are the only noninvasive imaging modalities that can be used to image specific receptor molecules and to quantify their kinetics. By formally comparing the output of the model to the experimentally obtained PET or SPECT data, one can estimate values for the kinetic parameters and thus extract information on binding, or any hypothesized process. The simplest of compartmental models applied to receptor-ligand studies postulates two tissue compartments. These two tissue compartments along with a plasma compartment are arranged in series. The partial volume effect is widely recognized as a limiting factor in the ability to quantify the amount of radioactivity in tissue accurately. The pharmacokinetic approach requires the PET or SPECT data to be analyzed using a mathematical model of radioactivity uptake. PET and SPECT brain imaging studies are divided into two groups: receptor-ligand studies and tracer studies.
A yield surface is proposed that can be fit to the plastic flow properties of a broad class of solids which exhibit plastic compressibility and different yield points in tension and compression. The yield surface is proposed to describe cellular solids, including foamed metals, and designed to be fit to three simple experimental results: (1) the compressive stress-strain response (including densification), (2) the difference between the tensile and compressive yield points and (3) the degree of compressibility of the foam, as measured by the lateral expansion during a uniaxial compression test. The model is implemented using finite elements and used to study the effects of plastic compressibility on two problems: the compression of a doubly notched specimen and indentation by a spherical indenter.
The sub-nanosecond electrical transients induced by 5-MeV He+ and 10-MeV Si3+ ions have been measured in single-crystal, natural type Ila diamonds. The detectors were fabricated into conductivity modulated devices and were incorporated into 50-Ω high bandwidth transmission line structures. The electrical signals were recorded with a system based on a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the total recording rise time of 18.6 ±:0.6 ps.
Signal rise times are less than 70 ps and fall times are less than 200 ps for electric fields in the range 3.8x104 - 1×105 V/cm. The plasma time appears to play a key role in defining the initial stages of the charge transport because signal rise times are much greater than the recording system rise time, especially with the Si-ion excitation. Furthermore, incomplete charge collection is quite severe even at the highest applied electric fields due to the dominance of carrier trapping/recombination at the defect sites.