To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The duration of imazaquin soil activity on corn, grain sorghum, rice, and cotton was studied from 1988 to 1990. Imazaquin applied at 0.035, 0.07, 0.14 (1× rate), and 0.28 kg ai ha−1 was incorporated into the soil, and rotational crops were planted at various times after application. Initial crop visual injury was directly related to imazaquin application rate. Cotton was most susceptible, followed by corn, grain sorghum, and rice. The carryover of imazaquin from soybeans to cotton, grain sorghum, and wheat was studied in separate experiments in Arkansas in 1987 to 1989. Wheat planted in the fall following soybean harvest was not affected by imazaquin residues. Grain sorghum planted the following spring was injured (16–35%), but there was no yield reduction. Cotton recovered from early injury (< 35%) in one year and did not recover from severe injury (> 50%) in the other, resulting in yield reduction.
Field research was conducted in 1988 and 1989 to compare effects of clethodim, fenoxaprop, haloxyfop, and sethoxydim each applied singly and sequentially at full (1X) and reduced (0.5X) rates on barnyardgrass, bearded sprangletop, and rice. A tank-mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb (2.2 + 2.2 kg ha–1) applied sequentially was included as a standard treatment. Control of barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop was equal to that of the standard treatment both years with 1X rates of clethodim and fenoxaprop, and with 0.5X rates of clethodim, fenoxaprop, and sethoxydim each applied after propanil; rice so treated produced high grain yields. In 1988, severe rice injury occurred after the second application of clethodim at the 0.5X rate, but rice recovered. Grass control costs were reduced 57% with a single application of fenoxaprop at the 1X rate compared with the standard treatment, but net returns were not different.
Three field studies were conducted over a 2-yr period to evaluate the persistence of fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) aniline], and to determine whether DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) affected persistence. Fluchloralin was applied to field plots at 1.1 kg/ha with and without DBCP at 20.5 kg/ha. In the first study, soil samples were taken periodically over a 1-yr period and assayed for fluchloralin by both gas chromatography (GC) and a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench ‘AKS-516’) root-elongation bioassay. Both methods of analysis indicated that fluchloralin persistence was unaffected by DBCP. An oat (Avena sativa L. ‘Ora’) bioassay of soil from the field plots 41 weeks after treatment showed no residual herbicide activity. In the next two field studies, soil samples were taken periodically over a 32-week period and assayed by GC for fluchloralin. A greenhouse sorghum bioassay of soil samples taken from both tests 32 weeks after application showed residual activity of fluchloralin in one test, but differences were not attributable to DBCP. A two-phase process of fluchloralin dissipation in field soil was indicated from analysis of the data using a complex first-order regression, as opposed to a simple first-order regression. Half-life values describing fluchloralin persistence, using the complex first-order regression, ranged from 2.3 to 3.7 weeks for the first phase and 9.5 to 26.7 weeks for the second phase.
Field experiments were conducted to compare efficacy of BAS 514, bromoxynil, fenoxaprop, sethoxydim, and triclopyr with standard herbicides for barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop control in rice at four locations. Sequential applications of BAS 514 and fenoxaprop, or propanil and sethoxydim consistently controlled barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop as well as or better than standard treatments of propanil, thiobencarb, or pendimethalin alone or combined; and rice so treated produced high yields. BAS 514 applied postemergence alone, BAS 514 applied sequentially with sethoxydim, or BAS 514 tank mixed with propanil controlled barnyardgrass but not bearded sprangletop. Bromoxynil or triclopyr tank mixed with fenoxaprop or sethoxydim antagonized activity on barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop. Combinations of fenoxaprop with BAS 514 or propanil consistently provided barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop control and high yields.
Existing long-term cotton experiments established in 1976 with minimum and intensive herbicide programs were subdivided in 1985 and 1986 to determine the longevity of fluometuron and trifluralin soil residues after discontinuing herbicide application. In monoculture cotton, seed cotton yield increased when herbicide use was discontinued in 1985 and 1986 after 9 and 10 yr of continuous use, respectively, on a Sharkey silty clay and a Dundee silt loam soil. Yield increases coincided with reductions of fluometuron and trifluralin soil residues. Fluometuron dissipated from the Dundee silt loam soil by 10 mo after the last application but was present in the Sharkey silty clay soil at 0.20 ppmw after 28 mo. Trifluralin did not totally dissipate from either soil, and low levels were present in the Dundee (0.05 ppmw) and Sharkey (0.13 ppmw) soils 30 mo after the last application. Visual injury to fall-seeded wheat and vetch decreased as herbicide residues dissipated. Fall tillage had no significant effect on the rate of fluometuron or trifluralin dissipation from either soil but reduced seed cotton yields.
Growth and development of red rice (strawhull) and ‘Lemont’ and ‘Newbonnet’ rice were compared in 1987 and 1988 under noncompetitive field conditions at Stuttgart, AR. Growth and developmental differences were greater between red rice and rice than between rice cultivars. Compared to rice, red rice was taller, produced more culms m−2 and aboveground dry weight, had higher leaf area indices, and had a greater flag leaf area. Also, it had lower leaf to stem ratios late in the season, had greater crop growth rate early in the season but less late in the season, and produced a lower grain weight than rice. Compared to Newbonnet, Lemont plants were shorter at 60 d after emergence or later, produced more culms m−2, had a greater leaf area index, and produced higher grain weight than Newbonnet. Also, Lemont and Newbonnet produced comparable leaf to stem ratios, crop growth rates, and flag leaf areas.
The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the activity of acifluorfen, fomesafen, lactofen, and acifluorfen plus bentazon on prickly sida, pitted and entireleaf morningglory, and common cocklebur was evaluated in a growth chamber. Reduced control of all species was observed at 50% relative humidity as compared to 85% relative humidity when temperatures were higher (32/55 C day/night). Similar response to relative humidity was observed at the lower temperature (25/15 C) when treatments were applied 14 days after emergence (DAE). Changes in temperature at the same relative humidity did not alter herbicidal activity. Delaying application timing from 7 to 14 DAE decreased control by all herbicides except lactofen applied at high relative humidity, which controlled prickly sida at both 7 and 14 DAE.
Agrichemical interactions between propanil; the herbicides HOE 30374, pendimethalin, piperophos, quinclorac, and thiobencarb; and the insecticide carbaryl were evaluated under field conditions to find synergistic or additive interactions useful to control a barnyardgrass biotype resistant to propanil (R-BYG) without injuring rice. Propanil and each compound were evaluated at four rates for a total of 16 rate combinations for each additive. Averaged over all experiments, 2- to 3-leaf R-BYG control with propanil alone at 0.83, 1.65, 3.3, and 6.6 kg ai/ha was 33, 53, 62, and 81% at 7 d after treatment (DAT). Propanil-susceptible barnyardgrass (S-BYG) response to propanil alone at similar rates was 52, 73, 88, and 94% control. HOE 30374, carbaryl, piperophos, or pendimethalin in combination with propanil produced synergistic effects on R-BYG. For each compound tested, at least one rate combination with propanil controlled R-BYG > 80% with minimal rice injury (< 20%) at 7 DAT. Use of these combinations of compounds could provide more effective control of this resistant biotype and help prevent its spread.
Field experiments were conducted to investigate methods of controlling red rice (Oryza sativa L. ♯ ORYSA) in drill-seeded rice (O. sativa). Treatments included the rice cultivar ‘Mars', coated with calcium peroxide (CaO2) at 40% (w/w) and a crop protectant, R-33865 (O,O-diethyl-O-phenyl phosphorothioate) at 0.5 and 1% (v/w). Molinate (S-ethyl hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate) at 6.7 kg ai/ha was applied preplant incorporated (ppi). The land was flooded (2.5 to 5 cm deep) after seeding with rice (100 kg/ha, 2.5 cm deep), and the water was maintained throughout the growing season. CaO2, with or without molinate, increased rice grain yield 50% and increased rice culm density fivefold above untreated rice. Molinate applied ppi controlled 96% of the red rice. Rice seed coated with only CaO2 or with CaO2 plus R-33865 at 0.5%, each combined with ppi molinate, produced 5690 and 6030 kg/ha of grain, respectively. These high yields were associated with red rice control by molinate and good stands of rice provided by O2 supplied by CaO2. R-33865 applied to rice seed at 1% (v/w) injured rice by reducing rice culm densities 41%, compared with rice without protectant.
Nicosulfuron (50 and 100 g ai ha−1), primisulfuron (40 and 80 g ai ha−1), imazethapyr (70 and 140 g ai ha-1), and DPX-PE350 (100 and 200 g ai ha-1) injury to corn, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, and soybean was evaluated at Fayetteville, AR, during 1989-90 and 1990-91. The crops were planted 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14 or 16, and 52 wk after herbicide application. Visible injury to all crops declined as the time interval increased. No visible injury was observed to any crop planted at least 14 wk after nicosulfuron or primisulfuron application, or 52 wk after DPX-PE350 application. Imazethapyr injured all crops except soybean at the 52-wk interval in 1990 but not in 1989.
Field studies were conducted on a Taloka silt loam (Mollic Albaqualf) to determine the effects of residual levels of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Yield reductions could be overcome by increasing rice seeding rate, by decreasing seeding depth, or by applying the safeners CGA-43089 [α-(cyanomethoxyimino)-benzacetonitrile] or CGA-92194 [α-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-methoximino)-benzacetonitrile] to the rice seed. Greenhouse studies with the safeners and reduced seeding depths indicated that CGA-92194 was better than CGA-43089 for protecting rice from metolachlor injury, but reduced seeding depths did not reduce metolachlor injury.
Studies were conducted at the Main Agricultural Experiment Station in Fayetteville and the Vegetable Substation in Kibler, Arkansas, in 1992 and 1993 on the same plots to evaluate weed suppression by winter cover crops alone or in combination with reduced herbicide rates in no-till sweet corn and to evaluate cover crop effects on growth and yield of sweet corn. Plots seeded to rye plus hairy vetch, rye, or wheat had at least 50% fewer early season weeds than hairy vetch alone or no cover crop. None of the cover crops reduced population of yellow nutsedge. Without herbicides, hairy vetch did not suppress weeds 8 wk after cover crop desiccation. Half rates of atrazine and metolachlor (1.1 + 1.1 kg ai ha−1) reduced total weed density more effectively in no cover crop than in hairy vetch. Half rates of atrazine and metolachlor controlled redroot pigweed, Palmer amaranth, and goosegrass regardless of cover crop. Full rates of atrazine and metolachlor (2.2 + 2.2 kg ai ha−1) were needed to control large crabgrass in hairy vetch. Control of yellow nutsedge in hairy vetch was marginal even with full herbicide rates. Yellow nutsedge population increased and control with herbicides declined the second year, particularly with half rates of atrazine and metolachlor. All cover crops except hairy vetch alone reduced emergence, height, and yield of sweet corn. Sweet corn yields from half rates of atrazine and metolachlor equalled the full rates regardless of cover crops.
Propanil-resistant barnyardgrass was reported in Poinsett County, AR, in 1990. Greenhouse studies were initiated to determine the distribution of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass in the state and to characterize the resistance. Barnyardgrass seeds were obtained in 1991 and 1992 from fields in 19 of the 38 rice producing counties in Arkansas where propanil treatment at recommended rates gave unsatisfactory barnyardgrass control. Barnyardgrass seedlings from the various sources were treated with propanil at 4.5 kg ai/ha and seedling injury response was compared to the response of seedlings collected from known resistant and susceptible barnyardgrass populations. Propanil-resistance of varying levels was confirmed in 115 (16 counties) out of the 138 Arkansas barnyardgrass seed sources. Propanil I50 values (rate of herbicide required to provide 50% injury/control) were determined to be 14, 20, and 39 kg/ha for slightly, moderately, and highly resistant barnyardgrass, respectively. A resistance factor of 20® was found in the highly resistant barnyardgrass category. Development of resistance was highly correlated with crop rotations where rice was grown one out of two, or two out of three years.
Field studies were conducted from 1988 through 1990 in Fayetteville, AR, to measure competitiveness of spotted spurge in cotton. Population levels were established by transplanting seedlings from other field areas. There was a positive linear relationship between cotton boll numbers and seed cotton yield. Percent reduction in cotton height, leaf area, dry weight, boll numbers, and seed cotton yield increased as spotted spurge densities increased. Seed cotton yield reduction was 47, 57, and 85% for spotted spurge densities of 5, 10, and 50 spotted spurge plants m–1 of row.
Four-year cropping sequences of continuous cotton, cotton-soybeans-soybeans-cotton, continuous soybeans, soybeans-grain sorghum-soybeans-grain sorghum, and cotton-rice-cotton-rice were treated each year with high and low levels of herbicides to control johnsongrass. High levels of herbicide were necessary to control johnsongrass in continuous cotton, cotton-soybeans-soybeans-cotton, continuous soybeans, and the soybeans-grain sorghum rotation. Johnsongrass was not eradicated, however, after 4 years of cropping sequences with high herbicide inputs. Both low and high levels of herbicide coupled with water management required for rice production controlled johnsongrass and prevented rice yield reductions.
Repeated use of propanil to control barnyardgrass (BYG) and other weeds in rice has led to the development of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass (R-BYG). R-BYG possesses elevated aryl acylamidase activity levels, which cause rapid metabolism of propanil analogous to propanil degradation in rice. The current screening method for determining propanil resistance in BYG requires about 10 mo. The present study examined the use of chlorophyll fluorescence as a more rapid method to identify propanil resistance in BYG soon after it is suspected. Chlorophyll fluorescence data from excised BYG leaf tissue (R-BYG and susceptible-BYG [S-BYG]; 13- to 41-d-old) exposed to 100 μM propanil for 2 h indicated a 95 to 100% inhibition of electron transport (photosynthesis inhibition) in both R- and S-BYG. However, when incubated in water in the dark for 22 h after the initial 2-h treatment, metabolism in R-BYG was sufficient to reduce levels of absorbed propanil and facilitate recovery. Lack of metabolism of propanil prevented recovery in S-BYG, thus allowing the two biotypes to be distinguished easily by the chlorophyll fluorescence assay. Further studies using this 2-h exposure to 100 μM propanil followed by a 22-h recovery period evaluated several assay parameters. A longer recovery time and the effects of various propanil concentrations were also evaluated. A herbicide dose-response curve showed the greatest difference in photosynthesis inhibition for both biotypes at about 100 μM propanil, but both biotypes were inhibited > 95% when treated with 400 μM propanil. Inhibition of photosynthesis in both biotypes was greatest when the recovery incubation temperature was 35 C compared to 20, 25, and 30 C. Fluorescence data from harvested tissue stored moist in plastic bags at 23 C (to simulate shipment) showed that biotypes could be differentiated even when received as late as 4 d after harvest. Thus, samples can be harvested from the field soon after propanil failure and resistance or susceptibility to propanil determined after only a few days. This technique can greatly reduce the time, space, and labor currently required to determine propanil resistance in BYG.
Red rice at 20 plants m−2 was grown with two rice cultivars for 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 days after emergence. Red rice interference for 120 days after rice emergence reduced straw dry weights of Lemont and Newbonnet 58 and 34%, respectively. Grain yield of Lemont and Newbonnet was reduced 86 and 52%, respectively, by red rice interference for 120 days after emergence. Regression analyses indicated that red rice interference reduced straw dry weights of Newbonnet and Lemont 25 and 50 kg ha−1 day−1, respectively, for interference durations of 40 to 120 days after emergence. Grain yield of Newbonnet and Lemont was reduced 60 and 93 kg ha−1 day−1, respectively, for interference durations of 60 to 120 days. Negative linear relationships occurred between interference durations of red rice and plant height, panicles m−2, spikelets panicle−1, filled grains panicle−1, or panicle length of both cultivars. However, all parameters were reduced more for Lemont than for Newbonnet as interference duration increased. Head rice (whole kernels) and total milled rice yields of both cultivars were reduced by season-long red rice interference. Red rice straw dry weight and number of culms m−2 were greater when red rice was grown with Lemont than when grown with Newbonnet.
Field experiments were conducted in 1984 and 1985 at Stuttgart, AR, to investigate the interspecific and intraspecific interference of broadleaf signalgrass densities of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 150 plants/m2 with rice. In 1984, significant reductions in rice leaf area index (LAI) occurred 6 weeks after emergence with all broadleaf signalgrass densities. The first reduction in LAI occurred 8 weeks after emergence at the density of 150 plants/m2 in 1985. Densities of 50 plants/m2 or greater reduced rice dry weight 6 weeks after emergence in 1984, and the highest density of 150 plants/m2 reduced rice dry weight 12 weeks after emergence in 1985. Height of rice was reduced by densities of 100 and 150 plants/m2. Linear regression equations indicated that each broadleaf signalgrass plant/m2 reduced rough rice yield 18 kg/ha both years. Growth of broadleaf signalgrass was reduced by interspecific and intraspecific interference. The dry weight of broadleaf signalgrass increased at a decreasing rate at plant densities of 100 to 150/m2 when grown alone in 1984 and 1985, when a quadratic equation best described the response. Regression equations indicated interspecific interference from rice reduced broadleaf signalgrass dry weight an average of 48 and 81% in 1984 and 1985, respectively. The height of broadleaf signalgrass was greater when grown with rice than when grown alone.
Studies were conducted at the Vegetable Substation in Kibler, AR, in 1992 and 1993, in the same plots, to evaluate weed suppression by spring-seeded cover crops and to determine the effects of cover crop and imazethapyr on no-till southern pea. A plot without cover, conventionally tilled before planting southern pea, served as control. Weed control treatments, applied as subplots in each cover crop, included a weedy check, handweeded check, and half and full rates of imazethapyr (0.035 and 0.07 kg/ha) followed by sethoxydim (0.22 kg/ha). Biomass of Palmer amaranth 6 WAR without herbicides, was less in Italian ryegrass and sorghum-sudangrass residues than in oat residue and no cover crop. Over the years, Palmer amaranth density increased 333% without cover crops and 28% with cover crops. Rice flatsedge density increased four to five times in oat and sorghum-sudangrass residues but remained the same in Italian ryegrass residue. In general, Italian ryegrass residue suppressed the most weeds. Oat residue was least suppressive. Italian ryegrass and sorghum-sudangrass also reduced southern pea stand. Regardless of cover crop and year, half and full rates of imazethapyr followed by sethoxydim equally reduced density of Palmer amaranth, goosegrass, large crabgrass, southwestern cupgrass, and rice flatsedge compared with the untreated check. Residual control of Palmer amaranth by imazethapyr was higher at the full rate than the reduced rate, regardless of cover crop. Half rate of imazethapyr followed by sethoxydim controlled 94 to 100% of Palmer amaranth, rice flatsedge, large crabgrass, and southwestern cupgrass late in the season, regardless of cover crop in 1992 and 1993. Southern pea yield in untilled plots with cover crops was two to three times lower than yield in plots with preplant tillage and no cover crops mostly because of reduction in crop stand in the presence of cover crops.
Concentrations of DIBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-(2H)-benzoxazine-3-one] and BOA [2-(3H)-benzoxazolinone], described previously as major allelochemicals in Secale cereale (rye), were determined in eight field-grown cultivars, harvested at booting, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Allelochemicals were also quantified in greenhouse-grown cultivar ‘Bates’ harvested 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after planting (DAP). The total production of DIBOA and BOA from field-grown S. cereale ranged from 137 to 1,469 μg g−1 dry tissue among the eight cultivars. ‘Bonel’ cultivar had the highest hydroxamic acid (HA) content and ‘Pastar’ the lowest. Bonel also showed the highest activity on Eleusine indica (goosegrass) and Pastar the least, in culture plate bioassays using aqueous extracts. HA content in shoot tissue varied with S. cereale maturity. The greatest level of HA in greenhouse-grown Bates was obtained 60 DAP compared to 30 DAP.