Methods have been devised for preparation of composite hydroxylapatite (HA)-plaster of Paris (PP) implants for augmentation of edentulous alveolar ridges. These implants may be used to correct bony defects, deficiencies, and related contour abnormalities. The HA-PP implants are customized to exactly conform to the underlying bony architecture. They can either be preformed and sterilized for later use or made directly or indirectly at surgery. In addition to maintaining the desirable biological, chemical and mechanical properties of HA, the HA-PP implant provides complete containment of the HA particles in the desired implant shape. The PP also contributes to an enhanced bony healing response and the HA-PP implant is very biocompatible.