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The dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seroconversion of hospital employees are understudied. We measured the proportion of seroconverted employees and evaluated risk factors for seroconversion during the first pandemic wave.
In this prospective cohort study, we recruited Geneva University Hospitals employees and sampled them 3 times, every 3 weeks from March 30 to June 12, 2020. We measured the proportion of seroconverted employees and determined prevalence ratios of risk factors for seroconversion using multivariate mixed-effects Poisson regression models.
Overall, 3,421 participants (29% of all employees) were included, with 92% follow-up. The proportion of seroconverted employees increased from 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7%–5.1%) at baseline to 8.5% [(95% CI, 7.6%–9.5%) at the last visit. The proportions of seroconverted employees working in COVID-19 geriatrics and rehabilitation (G&R) wards (32.3%) and non–COVID-19 G&R wards (12.3%) were higher compared to office workers (4.9%) at the last visit. Only nursing assistants had a significantly higher risk of seroconversion compared to office workers (11.7% vs 4.9%; P = .006). Significant risk factors for seroconversion included the use of public transportation (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.25–2.03), known community exposure to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (2.80; 95% CI, 2.22–3.54), working in a ward with a nosocomial COVID outbreak (2.93; 95% CI, 2.27–3.79), and working in a COVID-19 G&R ward (3.47; 95% CI, 2.45–4.91) or a non–COVID-19 G&R ward (1.96; 95% CI, 1.46–2.63). We observed an association between reported use of respirators and lower risk of seroconversion (0.73; 95% CI, 0.55–0.96).
Additional preventive measures should be implemented to protect employees in G&R wards. Randomized trials on the protective effect of respirators are urgently needed.
The epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has been extensively studied in hospitals, but data on community transmission are scarce. We investigated ESBL-PE cocarriage and acquisition in households using a systematic literature review.
We conducted a systematic literature search to retrieve cross-sectional or cohort studies published between 1990 and 2018 evaluating cocarriage proportions and/or acquisition rates of ESBL-PE among household members, without language restriction. We excluded studies focusing on animal-to-human transmission or conducted in nonhousehold settings. The main outcomes were ESBL-PE cocarriage proportions and acquisition rates, stratified according to phenotypic or genotypic assessment of strain relatedness. Cocarriage proportions of clonally related ESBL-PE were transformed using the double-arcsine method and were pooled using a random-effects model. Potential biases were assessed manually.
We included 13 studies. Among 863 household members of ESBL-PE positive index cases, prevalence of ESBL-PE cocarriage ranged from 8% to 37%. Overall, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–16%) of subjects had a clonally related strain. Those proportions were higher for Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%–25%) than for Escherichia coli (10%–20%). Acquisition rates of clonally related ESBL-PE among 180 initially ESBL-PE–free household members of a previously identified carrier ranged between 1.56 and 2.03 events per 1,000 person weeks of follow-up. We identified multiple sources of bias and high heterogeneity (I2, 70%) between studies.
ESBL-PE household cocarriage is frequent, suggesting intrafamilial acquisition. Further research is needed to evaluate the risk and control of ESBL-PE household transmission.
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