With a population of nearly 2 000 000 and an area of about 20 000 km2, Slovenia is a heterogeneous European country that extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the Alps. Slovenian political history dates back to the 6th century, when the first free principality of the ancient Slovenians was established – Caranthania – famous for its democratic institutions, legal system, popular elections of dukes and progressive legal rights for women. From the 13th century until 1918, Slovenians were ruled by the Habsburgs. After 1918, Slovenia became a part of Yugoslavia and again enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy. But as the political and economic crisis of Yugoslavia worsened, at the plebiscite in December 1990 87% of the voting population voted in favour of sovereignty. Thus, Slovenia declared its independence on 25 June 1991, and became a member of the United Nations in May 1992. Until the Second World War the psychiatric tradition in Slovenia was German. Afterwards, the Anglo-Saxon tradition has gradually entered Slovene psychiatry.