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The need for hollow microneedle arrays is important for both drug delivery and wearable sensor applications; however, their fabrication poses many challenges. Hollow metal microneedle arrays residing on a flexible metal foil substrate were created by combining additive manufacturing, micromolding, and electroplating approaches in a process we refer to as electromolding. A solid microneedle with inward facing ledge was fabricated with a two photon polymerization (2PP) system utilizing laser direct write (LDW) and then molded with polydimethylsiloxane. These molds were then coated with a seed layer of Ti/Au and subsequently electroplated with pulsed deposition to create hollow microneedles. An inward facing ledge provided a physical blocking platform to restrict deposition of the metal seed layer for creation of the microneedle bore. Various ledge sizes were tested and showed that the resulting seed layer void could be controlled via the ledge length. Mechanical properties of the PDMS mold was adjusted via the precursor ratio to create a more ductile mold that eliminated tip damage to the microneedles upon removal from the molds. Master structures were capable of being molded numerous times and molds were able to be reused. SEM/EDX analysis showed that trace amounts of the PDMS mold were transferred to the metal microneedle upon removal. The microneedle substrate showed a degree of flexibility that withstood over 100 cycles of bending from side to side without damaging. Microneedles were tested for their fracture strength and were capable of puncturing porcine skin and injecting a dye.
Dietary fatty acid (FA) composition may influence metabolism, possibly affecting weight management. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 5-d diet rich in PUFA v. MUFA. A total of fifteen normal-weight men participated in a randomised cross-over design with two feeding trials (3 d lead-in diet, pre-diet visit, 5-d PUFA- or MUFA-rich diet, post-diet visit). The 5-d diets (50 % fat) were rich in either PUFA (25 % of energy) or MUFA (25 % of energy). At pre- and post-diet visits, subjects consumed breakfast and lunch test meals, rich in the FA for that 5-d diet. Indirect calorimetry was used for 4 h after each meal. There were no treatment differences in fasting metabolism acutely or after the 5-d diet. For acute meal responses before diet, RER was higher for PUFA v. MUFA (0·86 (sem 0·01) v. 0·84 (sem 0·01), P<0·05), whereas diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was lower for PUFA v. MUFA (18·91 (SEM 1·46) v. 21·46 (SEM 1·34) kJ, P<0·05). After the 5-d diets, the change in RER was different for PUFA v. MUFA (−0·02 (sem 0·01) v. 0·00 (sem 0·01), P<0·05). Similarly, the change in fat oxidation was greater for PUFA v. MUFA (0·18 (sem 0·07) v. 0·04 (sem 0·06) g, P<0·05). In conclusion, acutely, a MUFA-rich meal results in lower RER and greater DIT. However, after a 5-d high-fat diet, the change in metabolic responses was greater in the PUFA diet, showing the metabolic adaptability of a PUFA-rich diet.
In this investigation, we reported the increase in emergency department and inpatient admission cases during the month of November 2012 post Hurricane Sandy as compared with baseline (November 2010, 2011, and 2013) for elderly patients aged 65 and up.
Medical claims data for patients aged 65 and over treated at emergency department and inpatient health care facilities in New Jersey were analyzed to examine the surge in frequencies of diagnoses treated immediately following Hurricane Sandy. The differences were quantified using gap analysis for 2 years before and 1 year after the event.
There was an average increase of 1700 cases for the month of November 2012 relative to baseline for the top 15 most frequently diagnosed emergency department medical conditions. On a daily basis, a volume increase by an average 57 cases could be expected, including significant numbers of limb fractures and other trauma cases for these most frequently encountered medical conditions.
Understanding the surge level in medical services needed in emergency departments and inpatient facilities during a natural disaster aftermath is critical for effective emergency preparation and response for the elderly population. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:730-738)
In this study, we analyzed the patterns of socioeconomic and demographic factors along with health services provider availability for the current Zika outbreak in Miami-Dade County, South Florida. We used Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight (CCIIO) Machine-Readable Public Use Files (MR-PUFs) to examine provider availability in combination with socioeconomic and demographic factors that could potentially lead to healthcare disparities between any underserved population of the Wynwood neighborhood and the broader population of Miami-Dade County. MR-PUFs contain public provider-level data from states that are participating in the Federally Facilitated Marketplace. According to CCIIO, an issuer of a Qualified Health Plan that uses a provider network must maintain a network that is sufficient in the number and types of providers, including providers that specialize in mental-health and substance-use disorder services, to assure that all services will be accessible to enrollees without unreasonable delay. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:455–459)
On 4 July 1986, dye was injected at a point slightly above the equilibrium line on Storglaciären, a small valley glacier in northern Sweden. Just below the equilibrium line, the glacier bed is over-deepened. The dye re-appeared in a stream at the glacier terminus over the next 35 d. This stream normally carries relatively little sediment, in constrast to the situation in another nearby stream that also emerges from the glacier. This suggests that the dye traveled in englacial rather than subglacial conduits. Tracer tests utilizing salt in bore holes in the overdeepening support this interpretation, as the bore holes were draining well above the bed. The dye appeared during three distinct events, suggesting that it became divided into at least three separate parcels shortly after injection. This probably occurred in the crevassed area in the vicinity of the injection point.
The englacial location of the drainage may be explained by the fact that, in order to remain at the pressure melting-point, water in subglacial conduits coming out of the overdeepening may have had to warm up faster than would be possible by viscous heating alone. Such conduits would thus tend to freeze closed.
We present first attempts to compare the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) high precision solar mean magnetic field (SMMF) data of four years with the occurrence of CMEs (coronal mass ejections) as recorded by LASCO on board SOHO. The BiSON magnetic measurement technique is given in Chaplin et al. (2003). Particularly interesting results of recent SMMF high-cadence observations have come from studies of correlation between the SMMF determined by MDI and the occurrence of CMEs (Boberg and Lundstedt 2000 and Boberg et al 2002). Two frequency ranges, centered on 13 and 90 minutes, have been identified as possibly correlating with CME occurrence.
We have used BiSON SMMF data from two sites to investigate CME related SMMF signals to try to confirm the MDI results. To search methodically through our data set we have developed two correlation techniques suited to short (up to 32 minutes) and long (up to 3 hours) period wavelets, respectively. For short periods we analyzed SMMF data in the vicinity of CMEs, and for long periods we compared SMMF results for days with and without recorded CMEs. In neither period range have we yet clearly identified correlations between SMMF power excesses and CME onsets. For the details of the techniques and the results see Chaplin et al. (2004).
The linear dispersion relation obeyed by finite-temperature, non-magnetized, relativistic two-fluid plasmas is presented, in the special case of a discontinuous bulk velocity profile and parallel wave vectors. It is found that such flows become universally unstable at the collisionless electron skin-depth scale. Further analyses are performed in the limits of either free-streaming ions or ultra-hot plasmas. In these limits, the system is highly unstable in the parameter regimes associated with either the electron scale Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (ESKHI) or the relativistic electron scale sheared flow instability (RESI) recently highlighted by Gruzinov. Coupling between these modes provides further instability throughout the remaining parameter space, provided both shear flow and temperature are finite. An explicit parameter space bound on the highly unstable region is found.
The three most basic drivers of energy demand are economic activity, population, and technology. Longer-term trends in economic growth for a particular economy depend on underlying demographic and productivity trends, which in turn reflect population growth, labor force participation rate, productivity growth, national savings rate, and capital accumulation (USEIA, 2011).
Several historic shifts are likely to fundamentally alter global demographics over the coming decades. First, as developing nations move from poverty to relative affluence, there is a fundamental shift from agriculture to more energy-intensive but much more productive commercial enterprises. Second, labor forces in the developed countries are aging considerably, which has implications on many fronts, including energy use and employment structures. Third, for the first time the majority of the world's population has become urbanized, with the largest urban centers emerging in developing regions where energy access is a serious constraint. All of these will have immense impacts on the level and quality of energy demand and on concerns about energy security.
Global energy security and sustainability in the twenty-first century will depend less on the total global population than on incomes and their distribution. This in turn will depend to a large extent on how effectively the lack of energy services, which now limit economic opportunities in the less developed regions, is addressed. In addition, energy security will depend on the ability of countries to maintain reliable sources of energy to meet their needs.
There is an increasing interest in electronics functionality on surfaces which are not planar. This paper examines the critical technologies for fabricating electronic surfaces which have a three-dimensional shape. Two different approaches for achieving such a goal are examined. One can fabricate electronics using conventional technologies on a flat surface, and then after fabrication deform that surface into the desired shape (e.g. a spherical cap). In an alternative approach, one can directly fabricate onto substrates with an arbitrary shape. In this case one must address the issue of pattern formation and transfer on the curved surfaces. The scaling of letterpress printing to micron-scale features on flat and spherically curved surfaces is demonstrated.
The Digital Micromirror Device™ (DMD™) developed at Texas Instruments is a spatial light modulator composed of 500,000 to 1.3 million movable micromachined aluminum mirrors. The DMD™ serves as the engine for the current generation of computer-driven slide and video projectors, and for next generation devices in digital television and movie projectors. The unique architecture and applications of the device present several packaging and test challenges. This paper provides a description of package humidity modeling and verification testing, as well as an overview of the automated optical testing and test equipment that have been developed to support manufacturing of the DMD™.
As-deposited polycrystalline silicon and argon ion laser recrystallized silicon thin film transistors (TFT's) have been fabricated on Corning Code 1729 glass substrates. This novel aluminosilicate glass has an expansion coefficient matched to that of silicon and a chemical durability comparable to that of fused silica. N-channel enhancement mode transistors were made using conventional IC device fabrication procedures (including thermal oxidation to form the gate insulator) modified to have a maximum processing temperature of 800 C. The- polycrystalline silicon TFT's exhibit leakage currents of less than 2x10-11 A/ μm; of channel width and good stability and reproducibility. Transistors made in the recrystallized silicon show field effect electron mobilities as high as 270 cm2/V s, approximately 15 times the mobility of comparable devices made in as-deposited polycrystalline silicon. The recrystallized silicon devices also exhibit lower threshold voltages and lower leakage currents than do the comparable polycrystalline silicon devices. Major advantages of this TFT technology include the use of a novel, potentially low cost glass substrate and the simultaneous processing of both polycrystalline and recrystallized silicon devices on the same substrate material. This approach represents a new avenue for the incorporation of active devices into a variety of applications including integrated active matrix displays.
The effect of different oxygen species on the RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth of ZnO films has been investigated. By varying the geometry of the aperture plate and also the RF power, the relative atomic content in the discharge was altered, and this is found to be corre-lated to the film quality. Further, growth rate studies performed in tandem with in-situ laser interferometry suggest that stoichiometric conditions may not result in saturation of growth rates.