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In value-based healthcare (VBHC) value is defined as outcomes that matter to patients divided by the cost of achieving these outcomes. Value is measured for discrete medical conditions across the whole cycle of care. Data on the value achieved by different providers is openly shared. Providers increase value using quality improvement (QI) techniques to improve outcomes, reduce costs or both. Patients or commissioners choose the provider achieving the greatest value. Units should compete regionally or nationally. There are challenges to implementing such ideas in the mental health services in the UK. However, measuring outcomes, understanding costs and using QI to drive up value may be possible without adopting the complete model that has developed in the context of a North American and acute hospital healthcare system.
Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
We evaluated the effects of chronic subclinical mastitis (CSM) caused by different types of pathogens on milk yield and milk components at the cow level. A total of 388 Holstein cows had milk yield measured and were milk sampled three times at intervals of two weeks for determination of SCC and milk composition, and microbiological culture was performed. Cows were considered healthy if all three samples of SCC were ≤200 000 cells/ml and were culture-negative at the third milk sampling. Cows with one result of SCC > 200 000 cells/ml were considered to suffer non-chronic subclinical mastitis whereas cows with at least 2 out of 3 results of SCC > 200 000 cells/ml had CSM. These latter cows were further sorted according to culture results into chronic negative-culture or chronic positive-culture. This resulted in four udder health statuses: healthy, non-chronic, chronicNC or chronicPC. The milk and components yields were evaluated according to the udder health status and by pathogen using a linear mixed effects model. A total of 134 out of 388 cows (34.5%) were chronicPC, 57 cows (14.7%) were chronicNC, 78 cows (20.1%) were non-chronic and 119 cows (30.7%) were considered healthy, which resulted in a grand total of 1164 cow records included in the statistical model. The healthy cows produced more milk than each of the other groups (+2.1 to +5.7 kg/cow/day) and produced higher milk component yields than the chronicPC cows. The healthy cows produced more milk than cows with chronicPC caused by minor (+5.2 kg/cow/day) and major pathogens (+7.1 kg/cow/day) and losses varied from 5.8 to 11.8 kg/cow/day depending on the pathogen causing chronicPC mastitis. Chronic positive-culture cows had a reduction of at least 24.5% of milk yield and 22.4% of total solids yield.
Seed dispersal is an important ecological process that structures plant communities and influences ecosystem functioning. Loss of animal dispersers therefore poses a serious threat to forest ecosystems, particularly in the tropics where zoochory predominates. A prominent example is the near-total extinction of seed dispersers on the tropical island of Guam following the accidental introduction of the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), negatively impacting seedling recruitment and forest regeneration. We investigated frugivory by a remnant population of Såli (Micronesian starling – Aplonis opaca) on Guam and two other island populations (Rota, Saipan) to evaluate their ecological role as a seed disperser in the Mariana archipelago. Using a combination of behavioural observations, nest contents and fecal samples, we documented frugivory of 37 plant species. Native plants comprised the majority (66%) of all species and 90% of all seeds identified in fecal and nest contents. Diet was highly similar across age classes and sampling years. In addition, plant species consumed by Såli comprised 88% of bird-dispersed adult trees and 54% of all adult trees in long-term forest monitoring plots, demonstrating the Såli’s broad diet and potential for restoring native forests. Overall, we provide the most comprehensive assessment to date of frugivory by the Såli and confirm its importance as a seed disperser on Guam and throughout the Marianas.
Increased adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance are associated with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases (CM). Such deleterious phenotypes have been shown to be associated with a low gene-richness microbiota that can partly be restored by a short-term dietary intervention (energy-restricted high-protein diet, low glycemic index, enrichment with fibers) in parallel to an improvement of CM profile. In this study, we aimed at increasing fiber intake in quantity and diversity through a two-month consumption of bread enriched with a mix of selected fibers and evaluated the impact of this dietary intervention on gut microbiota gene richness and CM risk profile in subjects at risk of developing CM.
Materials and methods
In a randomized double blind cross-over design, thirty-nine subjects with CM risk profile (18–70 years old, BMI: 25–35 kg/m2, waist circumference > 80 cm for women and > 96 cm for men, fiber intake < 20g/day, low fiber diversity) consumed daily for 8 weeks 150 g of standard bread vs. 150 g of bread enriched with a 7-selected fibers mix (5.55 g vs. 16.35 g of fiber respectively; 4-week washout). Gut microbiota and CM risk factors’ analyzes were conducted before and after intervention. Stool samples were analyzed by shotgun metagenomics; microbial genes and metagenomics species (MSP) profiles were generated by mapping reads on a reference genes catalog (1529 MSP).
The included dyslipidemic subjects with CM risk profile presented a lower microbiota gene richness compared to reference healthy cohorts. The two-month consumption of fiber-rich bread did not alter microbiota gene richness but modified microbiota composition with a significant decrease of Bacteroides vulgatus (q = 1.7e-4) and a significant increase of Parabacteroides distasonis (q = 2.8e-6), Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans (q = 5e-5) and Clostridiales (q = 3.8e-2). We observed in parallel a significant decrease in total cholesterol (- 0.26 mmol/L; - 5%; p = 0.021), LDL-cholesterol (- 0.2 mmol/L; - 6%, p = 0.0061) and an improvement of insulin sensibility estimated by HOMA index (3.23–2.54 mUI/L; - 21%; p = 0.0079).These effects were even significantly more pronounced for subjects presenting the higher waist circumference. Anthropometric parameters were not altered.
The enrichment of the diet with a mix of selected fibers for 2 months altered microbiota composition by modifying the relative abundance of specific gut bacterial species, in parallel to a significant improvement of cholesterol and insulin sensitivity parameters. Increasing the quantity and diversity of dietary fiber intake could be used as an efficient tool to favorably impact CM profile.
Planetary material in the atmospheres of white dwarfs is thought to be scattered inwards from outer planetary systems. Dusty emission in the infrared traces the accretion. As the scattering of many small asteroids is a stochastic process, variability in the infrared emission is predicted. We report a 3 year near-infrared (J, H and K) monitoring campaign of 34 dusty, polluted white dwarfs which aims to search for dust emission variability. We find all white dwarfs have consistent near-infrared fluxes, implying the excess emission is stable. This suggests tidal disruption events which lead to large variabilities are rare and quick (<1 year) and become stable within a few years. For WD 0408–041, the system that shows both increases and decreases in dust emission over 11 years, our K band data suggest a potential colour change associated with the dust emission that needs further confirmation.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The goal of this study was to determine physician performance in diagnosis and management of postpartum depression (PPD) and to provide needed education in the consequence free environment of a virtual patient simulation (VPS).
∙ A continuing medical education activity was delivered via an online VPS learning platform that offers a lifelike clinical care experience with complete freedom of choice in clinical decision-making and expert personalized feedback to address learner’s practice gaps
∙ Physicians including psychiatrists, primary care physicians (PCPs), and obstetricians/gynecologists (ob/gyns) were presented with two cases of PPD designed to model the experience of actual practice by including use of electronic health records
∙ Following virtual interactions with patients, physicians were asked to make decisions regarding assessments, diagnoses, and pharmacologic therapies. The clinical decisions were analyzed using a sophisticated decision engine, and clinical guidance (CG) based on current evidence-based recommendations was provided in response to learners’ clinical decisions
∙ Impact of the education was measured by comparing participant decisions pre- and post-CG using a 2-tailed, paired t-test; P <.05 was considered statistically significant
∙ The activity launched on Medscape Education on April 26, 2018, and data were collected through to June 17,2018.
∙ From pre- to post-CG in the simulation, physicians were more likely to make evidence-based clinical decisions related to:
∙ Ordering appropriate baseline tests including tools/scales to screen for PPD: in case 1, psychiatrists (n=624) improved from 34% to 42% on average (P<.05); PCPs (n=197) improved from 38% to 48% on average (P<.05); and, ob/gyns (n=216) improved from 30% to 38% on average (P<.05)
∙ Diagnosing moderate-to-severe PPD: in case 2, psychiatrists (n=531) improved from 46% to 62% (P<.05); PCPs (n=154) improved from 43% to 55% (P<.05); and, ob/gyns (n=137) improved from 55% to 73% (P<.05)
∙ Ordering appropriate treatments for moderate-to-severe PPD such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors: in case 2, psychiatrists (n=531) improved from 47% CG to 75% (P<.05); PCPs (n=154) improved from 55% to 74% (P<.05); and, ob/gyns (n=137) improved from 51% to 78% (P<.05)
∙ Interestingly, a small percentage of physicians (average of 5%) chose investigational agents for PPD which were in clinical trials pre-CG, and this increased to an average of 9% post-CG
Physicians who participated in VPS-based education significantly improved their clinical decision-making in PPD, particularly in selection of validated screening tools/scales, diagnosis, and pharmacologic treatments based on severity. Given that VPS immerses physicians in an authentic, practical learning experience matching the scope of clinical practice, this type of intervention can be used to determine clinical practice gaps and translate knowledge into practice.
Funding Acknowledgements: The educational activity and outcomes measurement were funded through an independent educational grant from Sage Therapeutics, Inc.
Language, apart from its cultural and social dimension, has a scientific side that is connected not only to the study of 'grammar' in a more or less traditional sense, but also to disciplines like mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. This book explores developments in linguistic theory, looking in particular at the theory of generative grammar from the perspective of the natural sciences. It highlights the complex and dynamic nature of language, suggesting that a comprehensive and full understanding of such a species-specific property will only be achieved through interdisciplinary work.
Most planetary nebulae (PNe) show beautiful, axisymmetric morphologies despite their progenitor stars being essentially spherical. Angular momentum provided by a close binary companion is widely invoked as the main agent that would help eject an axisymmetric nebula, after a brief phase of engulfment of the secondary within the envelope of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star, known as a common envelope (CE). The evolution on the AGB would thus be interrupted abruptly, its (still quite) massive envelope fully ejected to form the PN, which should be more massive than a PN coming from the same star were it single. We test this hypothesis by deriving the ionised+molecular masses of a pilot sample of post-CE PNe and comparing them to a regular PNe sample. We find the mass of post-CE PNe to be actually lower, on average, than their regular counterparts, raising some doubts on our understanding of these intriguing objects.