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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The goal of this study was to determine physician performance in diagnosis and management of postpartum depression (PPD) and to provide needed education in the consequence free environment of a virtual patient simulation (VPS).
∙ A continuing medical education activity was delivered via an online VPS learning platform that offers a lifelike clinical care experience with complete freedom of choice in clinical decision-making and expert personalized feedback to address learner’s practice gaps
∙ Physicians including psychiatrists, primary care physicians (PCPs), and obstetricians/gynecologists (ob/gyns) were presented with two cases of PPD designed to model the experience of actual practice by including use of electronic health records
∙ Following virtual interactions with patients, physicians were asked to make decisions regarding assessments, diagnoses, and pharmacologic therapies. The clinical decisions were analyzed using a sophisticated decision engine, and clinical guidance (CG) based on current evidence-based recommendations was provided in response to learners’ clinical decisions
∙ Impact of the education was measured by comparing participant decisions pre- and post-CG using a 2-tailed, paired t-test; P <.05 was considered statistically significant
∙ The activity launched on Medscape Education on April 26, 2018, and data were collected through to June 17,2018.
∙ From pre- to post-CG in the simulation, physicians were more likely to make evidence-based clinical decisions related to:
∙ Ordering appropriate baseline tests including tools/scales to screen for PPD: in case 1, psychiatrists (n=624) improved from 34% to 42% on average (P<.05); PCPs (n=197) improved from 38% to 48% on average (P<.05); and, ob/gyns (n=216) improved from 30% to 38% on average (P<.05)
∙ Diagnosing moderate-to-severe PPD: in case 2, psychiatrists (n=531) improved from 46% to 62% (P<.05); PCPs (n=154) improved from 43% to 55% (P<.05); and, ob/gyns (n=137) improved from 55% to 73% (P<.05)
∙ Ordering appropriate treatments for moderate-to-severe PPD such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors: in case 2, psychiatrists (n=531) improved from 47% CG to 75% (P<.05); PCPs (n=154) improved from 55% to 74% (P<.05); and, ob/gyns (n=137) improved from 51% to 78% (P<.05)
∙ Interestingly, a small percentage of physicians (average of 5%) chose investigational agents for PPD which were in clinical trials pre-CG, and this increased to an average of 9% post-CG
Physicians who participated in VPS-based education significantly improved their clinical decision-making in PPD, particularly in selection of validated screening tools/scales, diagnosis, and pharmacologic treatments based on severity. Given that VPS immerses physicians in an authentic, practical learning experience matching the scope of clinical practice, this type of intervention can be used to determine clinical practice gaps and translate knowledge into practice.
Funding Acknowledgements: The educational activity and outcomes measurement were funded through an independent educational grant from Sage Therapeutics, Inc.
Language, apart from its cultural and social dimension, has a scientific side that is connected not only to the study of 'grammar' in a more or less traditional sense, but also to disciplines like mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. This book explores developments in linguistic theory, looking in particular at the theory of generative grammar from the perspective of the natural sciences. It highlights the complex and dynamic nature of language, suggesting that a comprehensive and full understanding of such a species-specific property will only be achieved through interdisciplinary work.
We have obtained estimates of the solar internal rotational velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. Specifically, we have analyzed a 10-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-Foot Tower Telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. The Dopplergrams were obtained with a Na magneto-optical filter and a 244 × 248-pixel CID camera. From the time series we computed power spectra for all of the prograde and retrograde sectoral p-modes from ℓ = 0 to 200 and for all of the tessaral harmonics up to ℓ = 89. We then applied a cross-correlation analysis to the resulting sectoral power spectra to obtain estimates of the frequency splittings. From ℓ = 4 to ℓ = 30 we obtained a mean value of the frequency spitting of roughly 450 nHz (sidereal) in close agreement with most previously published results, while from ℓ = 40 to ℓ = 140 we obtained a mean value of about 470 nHz. We believe that the latter value is slightly higher than the surface rotational splitting of 461 nHz because of possible confusion due to the temporal sidelobes introduced by the day/night observing cycle. Confirmation of this possibility will have to await our computation of tesseral power spectra for degrees greater than our current limit of 89. Finally, for degrees between 140 and 200, the frequency splittings are indistinguishable from the surface rotation rate.
Research has documented that religious minorities often face the brunt of religious discrimination. Yet formal tests, using global collections, have been lacking. Building on the religious economy theory and recent work in law and politics, we propose that minority religions face discrimination from the state because they represent unwanted competition for the state supported religion, are viewed as a threat to the state and larger culture, and lack support from an independent judiciary. Drawing on the recently collected Religion and State-Minorities collection on more than 500 minority religions, we find support for each of the propositions, though the level of support varies based on the targets of state discrimination. In general, the support is strongest when explaining discrimination against minority religion's institutions and clergy, but weakens when explaining more general discrimination against the membership.
New data on leads and surface-melt phenomena in the Arctic, based on mapping of DMSP visible images, are presented. Lead orientations in the Beaufort Sea are broadly correlated with geostrophic wind direction and show similar synoptic scale patterns. Preliminary results of airborne 1.06 μm lidar transects over Baffin Bay demonstrate its great potential for high-resolution mapping of open-water areas and, in winter/spring, their ice-crystal plumes. Some of these sub-visible plumes are observed to penetrate the Arctic inversion. Snow-melt maps for the entire Arctic prepared for four summer seasons have been used to derive surface-albedo data. From these data the variability of the surface-energy balance is estimated to be equivalent to 0.6 m of ice melt.
Firn-density variations have been studied in the lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet (1440-1620 m a.s.l.) near Pâkitsoq, West Greenland. The main control on density in the near-surface firn layer (of 5-10 m thickness) is the formation of ice layers by the refreezing of meltwater that reaches depths of 2-4 m below the surface. The density variations are described by the ratio of annual surface melt M to the annual accumulation C. The ratio M/C is about 0.6 at the run-off limit (at about 1400 m a.s.l. in the study area) where refreezing of meltwater transforms snow into impermeable ice. The mean density of near-surface firn decreases with elevation, reflecting a decrease in melt with elevation. There is a surprising decrease in firn density at depths of more than about 4 m below the 1991 summer surface, which reflects lower melt rates and/or higher accumulation in the early 1980s and late 1970s when this firn was passing through the surface layer. The formation of such low-density firn may have partially contributed to the 1978-85 thickening of the ice sheet observed by satellite-radar altimetry. Near-surface firn density is therefore very sensitive to climate change and might be an attractive target for climate monitoring.
With an airborne lidar, we have observed massive plumes of condensate particles rising from wintertime leads in the Arctic Ocean. Some of these plumes reached an altitude of 4 km; some extended over 200 km down-wind from their surface source. Here we invert the lidar equation and use lidar backscatter data to infer particle concentrations within two such plumes. Assuming that the plumes consist of supercooled water droplets of radius 5 μm, we estimate typical concentrations of 3–6 × 105 droplets m-3 just above the leads. Concentrations within the plumes can still be as high as 104 droplets m-3 at an altitude of 3 km and 200 km down-wind from some leads. Had we assumed that the plume particles are ice spheres of radius 40 μm, concentrations would be just 100 times less than these.
Atrazine has been the most widely used herbicide in North American
processing sweet corn for decades; however, increased restrictions in recent
years have reduced or eliminated atrazine use in certain production areas.
The objective of this study was to identify the best stakeholder-derived
weed management alternatives to atrazine in processing sweet corn. In field
trials throughout the major production areas of processing sweet corn,
including three states over 4 yr, 12 atrazine-free weed management
treatments were compared to three standard atrazine-containing treatments
and a weed-free check. Treatments varied with respect to herbicide mode of
action, herbicide application timing, and interrow cultivation. All
treatments included a PRE application of dimethenamid. No single weed
species occurred across all sites; however, weeds observed in two or more
sites included common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, morningglory species,
velvetleaf, and wild-proso millet. Standard treatments containing both
atrazine and mesotrione POST provided the most efficacious weed control
among treatments and resulted in crop yields comparable to the weed-free
check, thus demonstrating the value of atrazine in sweet corn production
systems. Timely interrow cultivation in atrazine-free treatments did not
consistently improve weed control. Only two atrazine-free treatments
consistently resulted in weed control and crop yield comparable to standard
treatments with atrazine POST: treatments with tembotrione POST either with
or without interrow cultivation. Additional atrazine-free treatments with
topramezone applied POST worked well in Oregon where small-seeded weed
species were prevalent. This work demonstrates that certain atrazine-free
weed management systems, based on input from the sweet corn growers and
processors who would adopt this technology, are comparable in performance to
standard atrazine-containing weed management systems.