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Information on the factors that cause or amplify foodborne illness outbreaks (contributing factors), such as ill workers or cross-contamination of food by workers, is critical to outbreak prevention. However, only about half of foodborne illness outbreaks reported to the United States’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have an identified contributing factor, and data on outbreak characteristics that promote contributing factor identification are limited. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from 297 single-setting outbreaks reported to CDC's new outbreak surveillance system, which collects data from the environmental health component of outbreak investigations (often called environmental assessments), to identify outbreak characteristics associated with contributing factor identification. These analyses showed that outbreak contributing factors were more often identified when an outbreak etiologic agent had been identified, when the outbreak establishment prepared all meals on location and served more than 150 meals a day, when investigators contacted the establishment to schedule the environmental assessment within a day of the establishment being linked with an outbreak, and when multiple establishment visits were made to complete the environmental assessment. These findings suggest that contributing factor identification is influenced by multiple outbreak characteristics, and that timely and comprehensive environmental assessments are important to contributing factor identification. They also highlight the need for strong environmental health and food safety programs that have the capacity to complete such environmental assessments during outbreak investigations.
This study aims to examine the longitudinal effects of a small-scale nursing home model on the change rates of psychological outcomes by comparing green house (GH) and traditional nursing home residents.
A total of 242 residents (93 GH and 149 traditional home residents) who resided at the home least 6 months from admission. Four minimum dataset assessments every six months from admission were included. The main psychological outcomes were depressive mood, and social engagement. The main independent variable was the facility type that the resident resided in: a GH or traditional unit. Age, gender, ADL function, and cognitive function at admission were controlled in the model. A zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) growth curve model was utilized to compare change rates of two psychological outcomes between the two groups taking into account many zero counts of two outcome measures.
A rate of increase in depressive symptoms for GH home residents was higher than that of traditional home residents (β = 0.135, p-value = 0.025). GH home residents had a lower rate of increase of the probability of “not being socially engaged” over time compared to traditional home residents (β = −0.274, p-value = 0.010).
The GH nursing home model had a longitudinal effect on increasing the probability of residents’ social engagement over time, but also increasing the recognition of depressive symptoms compared to traditional nursing homes.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
We demonstrate the focusing action of a compact solid state pixelated Fresnel phase (PFP) lens for electrons (700 nm in diameter), consisting of an array of holes (“pixelated”) directly drilled by a finely focused electron beam in a thin AlF3 thin film on carbon supporting film. The depths of holes, hence the phase of the exit electron wave is varied as a function of radius from the center of the pattern so that the wavelet from each hole can be in phase on axis at a designated focal point thus producing a lens. An array of two types of lenses, convergent and divergent, with nominal focal length of 1 mm for 200 keV electrons was produced. The estimated full-width-half-maximum of the focus is 8 nm. With improvement of the efficiency, these lenses may find applications in parallel electron-beam lithography, in X-ray optics and in light optics.
Background and Method: This naturalistic study was undertaken in routine settings and compared the clinical effectiveness, costs, treatment preference, attrition and patient satisfaction of Group and Individual CBT. Results: No significant differences were found in depressive and distress symptoms between group and individual CBT at post-treatment and follow-up. Individual CBT was 1.5 times more expensive to provide than Group CBT and the wider costs of other supports were similar between study arms suggesting a cost-effectiveness advantage for Group CBT. Patients preferred individual treatment at baseline but, despite this, there were no between-group differences in attrition or satisfaction. Conclusion: A larger RCT study is needed, but running CBT groups for depression could be considered more frequently by clinicians.
Numerical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion demonstrated that the error introduced in the ANSI/ANS-16.1-1986 procedure, by assuming a zero surface concentration, varied from about 30% for a leachability index of 5 to about 0.1% for an index of 10. Waste forms typically have indexes of 7 or greater, implying errors of less than 5% with this assumption. The estimated leachability index differs from the actual value by less than 0.2 when the numerical solution is analyzed as input experimental data, except for a leachability index as low as 5 (essentially the value for water).
The seventh annual Teaching and Learning Conference (TLC) was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from February 5 to 7, 2010, with 224 attendees onsite. The theme for the meeting was “Advancing Excellence in Teaching Political Science.” Using the working-group model, the TLC track format encourages in-depth discussion and debate on research dealing with the scholarship of teaching and learning.
The working party was set up in 1991, and has met on a number of occasions since then at various venues. It became clear that because of other commitments its members felt unable to make a thorough study of the subject, and it was decided to produce a working paper which would set out the points which would need to be addressed if a Bill to disestablish the Church of England was ever introduced. The working party is now dissolved, though there is still need for another group to forward the discussion at a time when the concept of ‘re-establishment’ is gaining favour. The members of this working party, it should be stressed, were themselves divided about the need, or otherwise, of disestablishment. Equally, members of the working party were drawn from the established Church of England and the disestablished Church in Wales. We also had some input from members living abroad.
With few exceptions, today's tidal trees near Washington's Pacific coast postdate an earthquake that lowered the region by 1 m or more. The earthquake, which occurred in A.D. 1700, is the most recent to have ruptured much of the plate boundary at this central part of the Cascadia subduction zone. Because of the coseismic subsidence, lowland forests became tidal flats where thousands of trees died. Most of the trees killed were Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). In the centuries since the earthquake, tidal deposits have built new land that has been colonized by new Sitka spruce. All but several tens of the region's tidal spruce consequently postdate 1700, as shown by counts of annual rings in 121 of the largest spruce in tidal forests at Copalis River, Grays Harbor, and Willapa Bay. Forests began to return to each of these estuaries in the early 1700s and spread seaward in the late 1700s and 1800s. Annual rings in the oldest of the trees thus record a large fraction of the earthquake-recurrence interval that began with the 1700 earthquake.
During the earlier part of 1993 a paper of mine was published in the Ecclesiastical Law Journal. Entitled ‘What of the Church in Wales?’, it endeavoured to suggest why the disestablished Church in Wales still maintained the characteristics of an established Church. The paper seems to have aroused much interest within certain circles of the Church of England, especially among synod members, at a time when the question of disestablishment was once more being publicly aired. The point was made to me repeatedly that disestablishment would need to be accompanied by dis-endowment, although the only reason for this assertion appears to have been the historical precedents of the Irish and Welsh disestablishments. I am not competent to write about the former, but with regard to the latter I feel that a historical examination of the events which led to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales might raise some question marks against this assertion.