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This book presents a wide range of new research on many aspects of naval strategy in the early modern and modern periods. Among the themes covered are the problems of naval manpower, the nature of naval leadership and naval officers, intelligence, naval training and education, and strategic thinking and planning. The book is notable for giving extensive consideration to navies other than those ofBritain, its empire and the United States. It explores a number of fascinating subjects including how financial difficulties frustrated the attempts by Louis XIV's ministers to build a strong navy; how the absence of centralised power in the Dutch Republic had important consequences for Dutch naval power; how Hitler's relationship with his admirals severely affected German naval strategy during the Second World War; and many more besides. The book is a Festschrift in honour of John B. Hattendorf, for more than thirty years Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History at the US Naval War College and an influential figure in naval affairs worldwide.
N.A.M. Rodger is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford.
J. Ross Dancy is Assistant Professor of Military History at Sam Houston State University.
Benjamin Darnell is a D.Phil. candidate at New College, Oxford.
Evan Wilson is Caird Senior Research Fellow at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
Contributors: Tim Benbow, Peter John Brobst, Jaap R. Bruijn, Olivier Chaline, J. Ross Dancy, Benjamin Darnell, James Goldrick, Agustín Guimerá, Paul Kennedy, Keizo Kitagawa, Roger Knight, Andrew D. Lambert, George C. Peden, Carla Rahn Phillips, Werner Rahn, Paul M. Ramsey, Duncan Redford, N.A.M. Rodger, Jakob Seerup, Matthew S. Seligmann, Geoffrey Till, Evan Wilson
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.
To assess and develop a consensus among a European panel of public health nutrition workforce stakeholders (academics and employers) regarding core functions required for effective public health nutrition practice.
A modified Delphi study involving data from two rounds of questionnaires administered among a panel of public health nutrition workforce stakeholders.
A panel of fifty-three public health nutrition development stakeholders, including thirty-three academics and twenty employers, sampled from eighteen European countries.
Panellists rated 50 % (19/38) of the initially listed functions as core (i.e. without which public health capacity is limited), using a majority cut-off (>50 %). Out of the nineteen core functions seven were categorised under the heading Intervention management, emphasising high agreement on the importance of managing interventions in public health nutrition work. Only one of the identified core public health nutrition functions was rated differently between academics and employers, suggesting consistent identification of core functions between stakeholder groups.
This consensus on core functions of the public health nutrition workforce in Europe can be used to promote a consistent understanding of the role and value of public health nutritionists as a discrete disciplinary sub-specialty of the public health workforce. The convergence of opinions of academics and employers, as well as comparison with previous international studies, indicates that there is a set of core public health nutrition functions transferable between countries that can be used as a benchmark to guide further development of the public health nutrition workforce in Europe.
Variable magnetic field Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance-voltage (CV) analysis have been used to study InN layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. All three techniques reveal evidence of a buried p-type layer beneath a surface electron accumulation layer in heavily Mg-doped samples. The use of lattice-matched Yttria-stablized Zirconia substrates also provides evidence of a p-type layer.
The mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs is not fully understood. Application of genomic methods enables the identification of biochemical pathways that are regulated by antidepressants, and this may provide novel clues to the molecular and cellular actions of these drugs. The present study examined gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic antidepressant treatment.
Animals were treated for 12 days with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine; then, hippocampal ribonucleic acid was recovered, and changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray analysis.
A total of 160 genes that showed differential expression after paroxetine exposure were identified. Using functional relevance and observed fold change as selection criteria, the expression changes in a subset of these genes were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Of this subset, only two genes, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) and hairy and enhancer of split 6 (Hes6), showed robust and consistent changes in expression. Both genes were downregulated by paroxetine, and both have been previously implicated in neurogenesis. Further investigation of these two genes may provide new insight into the mechanism of action of antidepressants.
There has been a long interest in the relationship between folate and depression.
In this paper, we report baseline measures of red cell folate that were collected during a randomized trial of 107 patients with major depression. Red cell folate levels were examined for association with percentage improvement in depressive symptoms during treatment with fluoxetine or nortriptyline. The influences of possible confounding factors were assessed.
The low red cell folate group (defined in relation to the median) had a significantly poorer response to nortriptyline. This effect of red cell folate levels was not present in those treated with fluoxetine. No relationships were found between red cell folate levels and possible confounding factors of age, nutritional status, alcohol history, depression subtype, depression severity and chronicity of depression.
Response to nortriptyline was affected by red cell folate status. It may, therefore, be beneficial to consider folate augmentation in patients with major depression, particularly if treated with nortriptyline.
The study objective was to explore the way in which the expert patients programme (EPP) has been implemented by primary care trusts (PCTs) and to identify key barriers and facilitators to the implementation of this initiative in the National Health Service (NHS). The study forms the first part of a process evaluation to record the development of the EPP in the NHS and to identify the patterns of development which impact on NHS organizations and local community partnerships and networks. This preliminary survey consisted of telephone interviews with the key personnel working in primary care sites where EPP was initially piloted. Forty-six PCT leads (74% of those eligible) and 19 EPP trainers were interviewed (68% of those eligible). Secondary sources of data (such as PCT websites and literature promoting the EPP courses) were also examined. The PCTs’ ability to recruit to EPP courses was considered a key marker of early success which in turn related to wider issues concerning EPP’s position in the PCT’s priorities and the degree to which it was seen or made to link with other agendas and goals. A quarter of the sample had good rates of recruitment, the characteristics associated with these sites included: location in urban areas; early access to voluntary tutors; delegation of administrative responsibilities; networking and sharing resources with other PCTs; use of local newspapers to publicize courses; and active support from health professionals. Problems with recruitment were associated with a reliance on a paper-based strategy; poorly developed links to the broader community and health professionals. The evaluation shows that initial success of a lay-led self-care support programme in the NHS depends on commitment at the level of the PCT boards as well as those directly charged with organizing and delivering pilot training courses. Helping key health professionals understand and engage with the principles and benefits of training in self-care for people with long-term health conditions is likely to impact on the success and future of this programme within the NHS.