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The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
Critics charge President Donald Trump with racism, but he insists he opposes bigotry and is an American nationalist, not a white nationalist. We use analysis of Trump’s campaign rhetoric, his administration’s policies, and their reception to assess these rival claims. In his campaign, Trump narrated American identity as a tale of lost greatness in which a once-unblemished America gave way to globalist elites who have victimized many Americans, particularly traditionalist, predominantly white Christian Americans. His policies have systematically expanded protections for such Americans and sought to increase their share of the American electorate and citizenry, while reducing or eliminating initiatives designed to assist and increase the numbers of non-white, non-Christian American voters and citizens. The evidence thus shows that although Trump does not explicitly endorse white nationalism, his rhetoric and policies articulate not a consistent race-blind nationalism, but a vision of white protectionism.
In 2013, the United States Supreme Court decided Shelby County v. Holder, which invalidated Section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The ruling is part of longstanding efforts to maintain American institutions that have provided wide-ranging benefits to White citizens, including disproportionate political power. Over time, such efforts are likely to fail to prevent significant increases in political gains for African Americans, Latinos, and other minority citizens. But they threaten to foster severe conflicts in American politics for years to come.
The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case–control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.
Many scholars note that racial policy issues now focus on color-blind versus race-conscious approaches to racial inequalities, but they have not adequately explained how this development occurred or its consequences. Using work theorizing the role of ideas in politics, this article argues that these changes represent a “critical ideational development.” Diverse strains in earlier racial policy positions were reformulated to advance not just old racial goals but new ones. This critical ideational development produced advantages for conservative coalition building and Republican electoral campaigns, thereby contributing to the Reagan Revolution and later polarization and gridlock, and it helped drive racial issues out of campaigns and into other venues, especially legislative, administrative, and judicial hearings. It has not been associated with great progress in reducing racial inequalities or promoting racial harmony
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Several studies have investigated the potential health benefits, including those associated with neurological function, of the n-3 fatty acid DHA. This has arisen in part because of the association between higher intakes of fish, which is a major dietary source of DHA, and reduced disease risk. In addition to DHA, fish also provides choline and vitamin D. The objective of the present study was to assess whether women in the first half of pregnancy with low fish intake also had low blood concentrations of vitamin D, choline and DHA. A total of 222 pregnant women at 16 weeks of gestation were examined for dietary intake, erythrocyte (phosphatidylethanolamine PE) DHA, plasma free choline and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Women who consumed ≤ 75 g fish/week (n 56) compared to ≥ 150 g fish/week (n 116) had lower dietary intake of DHA, total choline and vitamin D (P< 0·001), and lower erythrocyte PE DHA (5·25 (sd 1·27), 6·83 (sd 1·62) g/100 g total fatty acid, respectively, P< 0·01), plasma free choline (6·59 (sd 1·65), 7·40 (sd 2·05) μmol/l, respectively, P= 0·023) and 25(OH)D (50·3 (sd 20·0), 62·5 (sd 29·8) nmol/l, respectively, P< 0·01). DHA intake was positively related to the intake of vitamin D from foods (ρ 0·47, P< 0·001) and total choline (ρ 0·32, P< 0·001). Dietary intakes and biomarkers of DHA, choline and vitamin D status were assessed to be linked. This raises the possibility that unidentified concurrent nutrient inadequacies might have an impact on the results of studies addressing the benefits of supplemental DHA.
Mental illness is common among prisoners, but little evidence exists regarding changes in symptoms in custody over time.
To investigate the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric symptoms among prisoners during early custody.
In a prospective cohort study, 3079 prisoners were screened for mental illness within 3 days of reception. To establish baseline diagnoses and symptoms, 980 prisoners were interviewed; all remaining in custody were followed up 1 month and 2 months later.
Symptom prevalence was highest during the first week of custody. Prevalence showed a linear decline among men and convicted prisoners, but not women or remand prisoners. It decreased among prisoners with depression, but not among prisoners with other mental illnesses.
Overall, imprisonment did not exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, although differences in group responses were observed. Continued discussion regarding non-custodial alternatives for vulnerable groups and increased support for all during early custody are recommended.
In 2008, following a campaign in which racial issues were largely absent, Americans elected their first Black president. This article argues that Obama's election does not signal the dawn of a postracial era in U.S. politics. Rather, it reflects the current structure of racial politics in the United States—a division between those who favor color-blind policies and seek to keep racial discussions out of politics, and those who favor race-conscious measures and whose policies are often political liabilities. The Obama campaign sought to win support from both camps. Only if pervasive material racial inequalities are reduced can such a strategy succeed in the long run.
Himalaya 292 (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) is a novel hull-less barley variety lacking activity of a key enzyme of starch synthesis giving a grain containing less total starch, more amylose and higher total dietary fibre. Animal trials have shown that Himalaya 292 contains more resistant starch and has greater positive impact on biomarkers of large-bowel health than comparable wholegrain cereal products. The present study compared the effects of foods made from wholegrain Himalaya 292 with those made from wholegrain wheat on faecal biomarkers of bowel health in human subjects. Seventeen male and female volunteers aged 31–66 years consumed similar quantities of Himalaya 292, whole-wheat or refined cereal foods daily for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design. Total dietary fibre intakes from weighed food records were 45, 32 and 21 g/d for the Himalaya 292, whole-wheat and refined cereal periods, respectively. Compared with the refined cereal foods, consumption of Himalaya 292 foods resulted in 33 % higher faecal weight, a lowering of faecal pH from 7·24 to 6·98, a 42 % higher faecal concentration and a 91 % higher excretion of butyrate, a 57 % higher faecal total SCFA excretion and a 33 % lower faecal p-cresol concentration. pH and butyrate concentration and excretion were also significantly different compared with wholemeal wheat. It is concluded that consumption of a diet that included foods made from Himalaya 292 supplied more fibre and improved indices of bowel health compared with refined cereal foods and, for some indices, similar wholemeal wheat foods at equivalent levels of intake.
We study travelling-wave solutions for a reaction-diffusion system arising as a model for host-tissue degradation by bacteria. This system consists of a parabolic equation coupled with an ordinary differential equation. For large values of the ‘degradation-rate parameter’ solutions are well approximated by solutions of a Stefan-like free boundary problem, for which travelling-wave solutions can be found explicitly. Our aim is to prove the existence of travelling waves for all sufficiently large wave speeds for the original reaction-diffusion system and to determine the minimal speed. We prove that for all sufficiently large degradation rates, the minimal speed is identical to the minimal speed of the limit problem. In particular, in this parameter range, non-linear selection of the minimal speed occurs.
The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of cancer in counties affected by Hurricane Katrina using population-based cancer registry data, and to discuss issues related to cancer patients who have been displaced by disasters.
The cancer burden was assessed in 75 counties in Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi that were designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as eligible for individual and public assistance. Data from the National Program of Cancer Registries were used to determine three-year average annual age-adjusted incidence rates and case counts during the diagnosis years 2000–2002 for Louisiana and Alabama. Expected rates and counts for the most-affected counties in Mississippi were estimated by direct, age-specific calculation using the 2000–2002 county level populations and the site-, sex-, race-, and age-specific cancer incidence rates for Louisiana.
An estimated 23,549 persons with a new diagnosis of cancer in the past year resided in the disaster-affected counties. Fifty-eight percent of the cases were cancers of the lung/bronchus, colon/rectum, female breast, and prostate. Eleven of the top 15 cancer sites by sex and black/white race in disaster counties had >50% of cases diagnosed at the regional or distant stage.
Sizable populations of persons with a recent cancer diagnosis were potentially displaced by Hurricane Katrina. Cancer patients required special attention to access records in order to confirm diagnosisand staging, minimize disruption in treatment, and ensure coverage of care. Cancer registry data can be used to provide disaster planners and clinicians with estimates of the number of cancer patients, many of whom maybe undergoing active treatment.
Hand-held hyperspectral reflectance data were collected in the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 to differentiate unique spectral characteristics of common turfgrass and weed species. Turfgrass species evaluated were: bermudagrass, ‘Tifway 419’; zoysiagrass, ‘Meyer’; St. Augustinegrass, ‘Raleigh’; common centipedegrass; and creeping bentgrass, ‘Crenshaw’. Weed species evaluated were: dallisgrass, southern crabgrass, eclipta, and Virginia buttonweed. Reflectance data were collected from greenhouse and field locations. An overall classification accuracy of 85% was achieved for all species in the field. A total of 21 spectral bands between 378 and 1,000 nm that were consistent over the three data collection periods were used for analysis. Only centipedegrass, zoysiagrass, and dallisgrass were correctly classified less than 80% of the time. An overall classification accuracy of 69% was achieved for the greenhouse species. Spectral bands used in this analysis ranged from 353 to 799 nm. Creeping bentgrass and Virginia buttonweed were classified correctly at 96 and 92%, respectively.