The reproductive biology of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris, was evaluated from 770 specimens (434 females and 336 males) obtained on the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil, between May 2005 and October 2007. Total length ranged from 14.7 to 56.0 cm for females and from 16.5 to 54.3 cm for males, with size composition not varying significantly between sexes. Five distinct maturity stages were identified based on macroscopic and histological examination of the gonads. Mean value of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) for females peaked in September and October, with a secondary peak in February and March. Histological analyses confirmed the reproductive cycle inferred by GSI variation. Asynchronous-type ovarian development was observed, and batch fecundity ranged from less than 104,743 oocytes for a 25.5 cm female of to 568,400 oocytes for a 56.0 cm female (250.0 and 2260 g, respectively), with an average of 345,700 oocytes. The reproductive parameters obtained for L. synagris in the Abrolhos Bank were similar to those reported in studies in northern Brazil and the north-west Atlantic. The species is an important fishery resource in the study region, and management measures are needed before the species becomes overfished. Exploitation occurs largely during spawning aggregations, a situation that has caused other lane snapper populations (and congeners) to decline acutely elsewhere. Our results provide support for size limits and seasonal spawning closures on the Abrolhos Bank, a region that sustains artisanal fisheries involving >20,000 fishermen.