To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Disasters pose a documented risk to mental health, with a range of peri- and post-disaster factors (both pre-existing and disaster-precipitated) linked to adverse outcomes. Among these, increasing empirical attention is being paid to the relation between disasters and violence.
This study examined self-reported experiences of assault or violence victimisation among communities affected by high, medium, and low disaster severity following the 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia. The association between violence, mental health outcomes and alcohol misuse was also investigated.
Participants were 1016 adults from high-, medium- and low-affected communities, 3–4 years after an Australian bushfire disaster. Rates of reported violence were compared by areas of bushfire-affectedness. Logistic regression models were applied separately to men and women to assess the experience of violence in predicting general and fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol misuse.
Reports of experiencing violence were significantly higher among high bushfire-affected compared with low bushfire-affected regions. Analyses indicated the significant relationship between disaster-affectedness and violence was observed for women only, with rates of 1.0, 0 and 7.4% in low, medium and high bushfire-affected areas, respectively. Among women living in high bushfire-affected areas, negative change to income was associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing violence (odds ratio, 4.68). For women, post-disaster violence was associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms.
Women residing within high bushfire-affected communities experienced the highest levels of violence. These post-disaster experiences of violence are associated with post-disaster changes to income and with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms among women. These findings have critical implications for the assessment of, and interventions for, women experiencing or at risk of violence post-disaster.
On January 13, 2018, a false ballistic missile alert that lasted 38 minutes was issued across Oahu, Hawaii, United States. As a result of a system failure, an erroneous text message was sent that stated, “Ballistic missile threat inbound to Hawaii. Seek immediate shelter.”
The research team wanted to know the degree of reported anxiety triggered by the event and if knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors for individual/family emergency preparedness (EP) changed post-event.
A 50-question survey that asked about individual and family EP pre- and post-event, and the level of anxiety triggered by the event, was administered to a convenience sample of full-time adult residents of Oahu. The study was conducted over a 6-8 week period post-event. Statistical analysis was used to identify factors associated with an increasing level of EP post-event and reported event-triggered anxiety.
209 participants completed the survey (29% male, 71% female) with about one half living with children. One third were essential workers. Key factors that correlate with increasing various areas of EP post-event include higher educational, receipt of electronic emergency alerts, prior emergency training, and higher reported connectedness to community. Those with higher event anxiety were more likely to develop and practice an EP plan post-event, encourage EP with friends, and report a higher level of community connectedness. The elderly were more likely to have higher levels of EP before and after the event but were less likely to receive emergency alert notifications or have EP training.
While the event was very unfortunate, it did seem to stimulate citizen disaster EP among some groups. Additional research should explore the utility of increasing EP education for communities immediately after disasters, tailoring this education for groups, and targeting the elderly for participation in the emergency alert system.
Using the recently developed techniques of electron tomography, we have explored the first stages of disfiguring formation of zinc soaps in modern oil paintings. The formation of complexes of zinc ions with fatty acids in paint layers is a major threat to the stability and appearance of many late 19th and early 20th century oil paintings. Moreover, the occurrence of zinc soaps in oil paintings leading to defects is disturbingly common, but the chemical reactions and migration mechanisms leading to large zinc soap aggregates or zones remain poorly understood. State-of-the-art scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques, primarily developed for biological specimens, have enabled us to visualize the earliest stages of crystalline zinc soap growth in a reconstructed zinc white (ZnO) oil paint sample. In situ sectioning techniques and sequential imaging within the SEM allowed three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of sample morphology. Improvements in the detection and discrimination of backscattered electrons enabled us to identify local precipitation processes with small atomic number contrast. The SEM images were correlated to low-dose and high-sensitivity TEM images, with high-resolution tomography providing unprecedented insight into the structure of nucleating zinc soaps at the molecular level. The correlative approach applied here to study phase separation, and crystallization processes specific to a problem in art conservation creates possibilities for visualization of phase formation in a wide range of soft materials.
Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated.
To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period.
Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions.
Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%–16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%–4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.
PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden.
Animal-source foods (ASF) have the potential to enhance the nutritional adequacy of cereal-based diets in low- and middle-income countries, through the provision of high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients. The development of guidelines for including ASF in local diets requires an understanding of the nutrient content of available resources. This article reviews food composition tables (FCT) used in sub-Saharan Africa, examining the spectrum of ASF reported and exploring data sources for each reference. Compositional data are shown to be derived from a small number of existing data sets from analyses conducted largely in high-income nations, often many decades previously. There are limitations in using such values, which represent the products of intensively raised animals of commercial breeds, as a reference in resource-poor settings where indigenous breed livestock are commonly reared in low-input production systems, on mineral-deficient soils and not receiving nutritionally balanced feed. The FCT examined also revealed a lack of data on the full spectrum of ASF, including offal and wild foods, which correspond to local food preferences and represent valuable dietary resources in food-deficient settings. Using poultry products as an example, comparisons are made between compositional data from three high-income nations, and potential implications of differences in the published values for micronutrients of public health significance, including Fe, folate and vitamin A, are discussed. It is important that those working on nutritional interventions and on developing dietary recommendations for resource-poor settings understand the limitations of current food composition data and that opportunities to improve existing resources are more actively explored and supported.
To be effective, performance and reward management systems should encourage employees to demonstrate consistently those types of work behaviour and results that are deemed necessary to support the organisation’s strategic objectives and desired corporate culture. More so than other human resource practices, performance and reward management systems also exist to shape and reshape employee work behaviour in ways desired by the organisation. The shorthand practitioner term for this is employee engagement. Yet establishing and maintaining employee engagement is no simple matter. Performance and reward practices sometimes go badly awry, eliciting not the wanted work behaviour but, rather, systemic misbehaviour and disengagement. The means to avoiding such unfortunate behavioural consequences lie not in the behaviour itself but in understanding and influencing the factors that help to shape work behaviour – and, above all else, this requires close consideration of employee work attitudes and what has come to be known as the employee ‘psychological contract’.
In this chapter, we explore the complex links between employee attitudes and behaviour (i.e. engagement) with particular focus on the attitude that is generally accorded greatest importance as a determinant of employee performance; that is, work (or task) motivation. We shall see that, for all of its importance, and despite it being one of the most closely researched topics in the social sciences, the sources of task motivation remain a matter of long-standing and continuing debate in Western management thought. The chapter will also draw on the concept of the employee-centred ‘psychological contract’ to present a basic employee-centred framework for better understanding and influencing employee attitudes and behaviour in ways beneficial to both the organisation and the employees themselves. The chapter opens with a discussion of the three main categories of work behaviour, then moves to an overview of the three key attitudinal categories, as well as considering some of the possible associations between the two sets of categories. With these propositions in mind, the chapter next introduces the nature and practical significance of the notion of the ‘psychological contract’. This is followed by consideration of the set of perceptual factors that are widely regarded as lying at the centre of the employee psychological contract, namely, perceptions of ‘organisational justice’ and injustice.
Now in its second edition, Managing Employee Performance and Reward continues to offer comprehensive coverage of employee performance and reward, presenting the material in a conceptually integrated way. This new edition has been substantially updated and revised by a team of specialist contributors, and includes: An increased focus on employee engagement and the alignment between the organisation's goals and the personal goals of employeesExpanded coverage of coaching, now a leading-edge performance enhancement practiceExtensive updates reflecting the major changes in employee benefits in recent years, as organisations strive to attract and retain talentUpdated coverage of executive salaries and incentives in the contemporary post-GFC environment.This popular text is an indispensable resource for both students and managers alike. Written for a global readership, the book will continue to have particular appeal to those studying and practising people management in the Asia-Pacific region.
It is appropriate that we begin our journey by considering those ideas, concepts, propositions and debates that are fundamental to a rounded understanding of employee performance and reward management and, equally, to well-informed and effective practice in these fields.
The three chapters in part 1 are devoted to this end. Chapter 1 seeks to clarify the meaning, nature and purpose of our two focal human resource processes: performance management and reward management. While our treatment of the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of performance and reward management is written from an explicitly prescriptive-descriptive perspective, the treatment is neither wholly management-centred nor uncritical.
Building on this foundational knowledge, the two accompanying chapters consider, respectively, the psychological, motivational and strategic basics of performance and reward management. These chapters offer frameworks for practising performance and reward management in both a psychologically aware and a strategically informed manner. The development, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems require simultaneous attention to each of these fundamental dimensions.
By ‘psychological’ dimensions we mean the attitudes, perceptions, values and emotional (or ‘affective’) states that prefi gure the observable actions-or behaviour-of individual employees, or at least that seem to predispose individuals towards certain behavioural actions rather than others. While ‘motivation’ is undoubtedly the most widely acknowledged and theorised of all work attitudes, as we shall see, there are others that may be no less salient or infl uential, including those that are grounded more in perception and in deeply held values and emotions than in dispassionate or rational cognition.
The three chapters in part 2 examine the key concepts, techniques and processes associated with the management of employee performance. In chapter 1 we observed that, from a descriptive ‘cybernetic’ (i.e. systems) perspective, work performance may be thought of as having three horizontal or process dimensions – that is, inputs (knowledge, skills and abilities), task effort and other types of work behaviour, and outcomes or results; and three vertical or scalar dimensions – that is, individual, group and organisation-wide performance. By definition, the methods that accentuate behaviour and competency have an individual focus.
Chapters 4 and 5 examine the main performance management methods or techniques associated with each of these dimensions. Chapter 4 considers those approaches to performance management that are results-focused. Chapter 5 will then consider the methods and techniques that are behaviourally focused and examine the concepts and techniques that emphasise performance inputs or capacities in the form of performance competencies. Chapter 6 , the fi nal chapter in part 2 , examines both the provision of performance feedback to individual employees and practices directed towards performance development, including coaching.
Having now laid out all of the pieces of the performance and reward puzzle, it is time for us to consider how to go about assembling these elements into a coherent whole. In this concluding chapter, we detail the alignment model approach to assembling the various concepts, practices and strategies explored in parts 1–4 into an integrated and strategically aligned whole. Specifically, we examine the requirements for and challenges associated with performance and reward system review and the steps involved in system change and development. Although our approach here is primarily prescriptive in nature, our prescriptions also draw on a range of insights available in the empirical or descriptive and critical literatures that have been referred to at various points throughout the text.
Having considered the key psychological and strategic dimensions to understanding the employment relationship, as well as the three main approaches to managing employee performance, we can now turn our attention to the second of the two human resource management processes with which this book is concerned, namely, the management of employee reward and, in particular, the management of employee pay or remuneration. A remuneration system typically comprises three main elements: base pay, benefits and performance-related pay. In designing any remuneration system careful attention should be paid to three key considerations: first, the relative role that each of these three components will play in total remuneration; second, the practices that will be drawn on to configure each component; and third, the target level of total remuneration for each position.
The four chapters in part 3 cover base pay and benefi ts. Chapter 7 considers the rationale for base pay, the main options for confi guring base pay, the general strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and the incidence of each. It then details the pay structures associated with each option, while chapters 8 and 9 discuss the evaluation methods and processes associated with the development of pay systems based on each of these approaches. Chapter 10 then examines the logic of employee benefit plans and the main options for confi guring such plans.
Having considered the main options and processes associated with base pay and benefits, we can now consider the remaining major area of reward practice, namely, performance-related rewards. Also known as ‘incentive plans’, these are rewards that are contingent or ‘at risk’ in some way, rather than being ‘fixed’ or ‘guaranteed’, as is the case with more traditional forms of base pay. For this reason, such rewards are also commonly referred to as ‘contingent’ or ‘variable’ pay plans. Moreover, while many such rewards are financial in nature (i.e. performance pay or cash incentives), performance-related rewards may also take a non-financial form.
The six chapters in part 4 offer a detailed coverage of the main types of individual and collective performance-related rewards and of key themes and debates associated with such rewards. Chapter 11 outlines the main types of performance-related rewards, considers some of the general motives for adopting performance-contingent rewards, and overviews the main arguments and supporting evidence for and against such plans. Chapters 12 to 15 examine specifi c types of performance-related reward plans that are commonly applied to line employees and managers, with particular emphasis on plan usage, strengths and weaknesses. Plans covered include individual merit pay; recognition awards; results-based individual incentives; collective short-term incentives; and collective long-term incentive plans in the form of broadly based employee share plans.