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Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC) infection is a major cause of diarrhoea and contributor to mortality in children <5 years old in developing countries. Data were analysed from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study examining children <5 years old seeking care for moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in Kenya. Stool specimens were tested for enteric pathogens, including by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for gene targets of tEPEC. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected at enrolment and ~60-days later; multivariable logistic regressions were constructed. Of 1778 MSD cases enrolled from 2008 to 2012, 135 (7.6%) children tested positive for tEPEC. In a case-to-case comparison among MSD cases, tEPEC was independently associated with presentation at enrolment with a loss of skin turgor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–3.17), and convulsions (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.12–7.14). At follow-up, infants with tEPEC compared to those without were associated with being underweight (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.6) and wasted (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–4.6). Among MSD cases, tEPEC was associated with mortality (aOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.47–5.55). This study suggests that tEPEC contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Interventions aimed at defining and reducing the burden of tEPEC and its sequelae should be urgently investigated, prioritised and implemented.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
To develop an onsite syndromic surveillance system for the early detection of public health emergencies and outbreaks at large public events.
As the third largest public health jurisdiction in the United States, Maricopa County Department of Public Health has worked with academic and first-response partners to create an event-targeted syndromic surveillance (EVENTSS) system. This system complements long-standing traditional emergency department-based surveillance and provides public health agencies with rapid reporting of possible clusters of illness.
At 6 high profile events, 164 patient reports were collected. Gastrointestinal and neurological syndromes were most commonly reported, followed by multisyndromic reports. Neurological symptoms were significantly increased during hot weather events. The interview rate was 2 to 7 interviews per 50 000 people per hour, depending on the ambient temperature.
Study data allowed an estimation of baseline values of illness occurring at large public events. As more data are collected, prediction models can be built to determine threshold levels for public health response.
EVENTSS was conducted largely by volunteer public health graduate students, increasing the response capacity for the health department. Onsite epidemiology staff could make informed decisions and take actions quickly in the event of a public health emergency. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1–8)
Research reveals mixed results regarding the utility of standardized cognitive and academic tests to predict educational outcomes in youth following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, deficits in everyday school-based outcomes are prevalent after pediatric TBI. The current study used path modeling to test the hypothesis that parent ratings of adolescents’ daily behaviors associated with executive functioning (EF) would predict long-term functional educational outcomes following pediatric TBI, even when injury severity and patient demographics were included in the model. Furthermore, we contrasted the predictive strength of the EF behavioral ratings with that of a common measure of verbal memory. A total of 132 adolescents who were hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were recruited to participate in a randomized clinical intervention trial. EF ratings and verbal memory were measured within 6 months of the injury; functional educational outcomes were measured 12 months later. EF ratings and verbal memory added to injury severity in predicting educational competence post injury but did not predict post-injury initiation of special education. The results demonstrated that measurement of EF behaviors is an important research and clinical tool for prediction of functional outcomes in pediatric TBI. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–9)
Actions that range from incremental steps to transformational changes are essential for reducing risk from weather and climate extremes (high agreement, robust evidence). [8.6, 8.7] Incremental steps aim to improve efficiency within existing technological, governance, and value systems, whereas transformation may involve alterations of fundamental attributes of those systems. The balance between incremental and transformational approaches depends on evolving risk profiles and underlying social and ecological conditions. Disaster risk, climate change impacts, and capacity to cope and adapt are unevenly distributed. Vulnerability is often concentrated in poorer countries or groups, although the wealthy can also be vulnerable to extreme events. Where vulnerability is high and adaptive capacity relatively low, changes in extreme climate and weather events can make it difficult for systems to adapt sustainably without transformational changes. Such transformations, where they are required, are facilitated through increased emphasis on adaptive management, learning, innovation, and leadership.
Evidence indicates that disaster risk management and adaptation policy can be integrated, reinforcing, and supportive – but this requires careful coordination that reaches across domains of policy and practice (high agreement, medium evidence). [8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.7] Including disaster risk management in resilient and sustainable development pathways is facilitated through integrated, systemic approaches that enhance capacity to cope with, adapt to, and shape unfolding processes of change, while taking into consideration multiple stressors, different prioritized values, and competing policy goals.
Background: Unawareness of cognitive deficit in people with dementia (PwD) has wide clinical implications, impacting on help-seeking behavior, treatment compliance, and patient safety. Most studies on unawareness among PwD have been conducted in small clinical samples. This study investigated the frequency of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia, exploring regional differences and sociodemographic and health status correlates in large population-based surveys.
Methods: Community samples (total n = 15,022) from three world regions (Latin America, China, and India) were obtained using cross-sectional population-based surveys. Out of these, 897 (5.97%) PwD with memory impairment were identified using standardized interviews, diagnostic algorithms (DSM-IV or 10/66 criteria), and neuropsychological memory assessment. Unawareness of memory deficits was ascertained from the participants’ subjective report. The frequency of unawareness was calculated for each region and associations with demographic variables and health status were investigated using prevalence ratios and Poisson regressions.
Results: Regional differences in frequency of unawareness were found, from 63% in China to 81% in India. Unawareness was associated with depression in China and Latin America, dementia severity in India and Latin America, and education and socioeconomic level in Latin America.
Conclusions: Unawareness of memory impairment in PwD varies across international regions. Our data support the notion that unawareness should be seen not only as a common neurobiological feature of dementia, increasing with severity of dementia, but also as a phenomenon influenced by social and cultural factors.
To compare a specialized interprofessional team approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation with usual home care for stroke survivors using home care services.
Randomized controlled trial of 101 community-living stroke survivors (<18 months post-stroke) using home care services. Subjects were randomized to intervention (n=52) or control (n=49) groups. The intervention was a 12-month specialized, evidence-based rehabilitation strategy involving an interprofessional team. The primary outcome was change in health-related quality of life and functioning (SF-36) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes were number of strokes during the 12-month follow-up, and changes in community reintegration (RNLI), perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Kessler-10), cognitive function (SPMSQ), and costs of use of health services from baseline to 12 months.
A total of 82 subjects completed the 12-month follow-up. Compared with the usual care group, stroke survivors in the intervention group showed clinically important (although not statistically significant) greater improvements from baseline in mean SF-36 physical functioning score (5.87, 95% CI -3.98 to 15.7; p=0.24) and social functioning score (9.03, CI-7.50 to 25.6; p=0.28). The groups did not differ for any of the secondary effectiveness outcomes. There was a higher total per-person costs of use of health services in the intervention group compared to usual home care although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.76).
A 12-month specialized, interprofessional team is a feasible and acceptable approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation that produced greater improvements in quality of life compared to usual home care. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463229
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are?
In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole.
EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.
Ovarian volume decreases significantly in each 10-year period of a woman's fertile life. The ovarian size decreases in women greater than 40 years old. The volume of each ovary is calculated by measuring in three perpendicular directions and applying the formula for an ellipsoid. Using the largest cross-sectional sagittal view of the ovary, the mean ovarian diameter could be calculated from measurement of two perpendicular diameters. The combination of transvaginal ultrasound and pulsed color Doppler is increasingly used in gynecology to assess the hemodynamic changes in various physiological and pathological situations of the pelvic organs. Only one study has compared the predictive value of antral follicle count (AFC) measurement made using both two-dimension and three-dimension ultrasound in determining the outcome of response to ovarian stimulation as measured by the number of follicles that develop, the number of oocytes retrieved, and the pregnancy rate following assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
This study determined the effects and costs of a multifactorial, interdisciplinary team approach to falls prevention. Randomized controlled trial of 109 older adults who are at risk for falls. This was a six-month multifactorial and evidence-based prevention strategy involving an interdisciplinary team. The primary outcome was number of falls during the six-month follow-up. At six months, no difference in the mean number of falls between groups. Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention effectively reduced falls in men (75–84 years old) with a fear of falling or negative fall history. Number of slips and trips was greatly reduced; and emotional health had a greater improvement in role functioning related to emotional health in the intervention group. Quality of life was improved, slips and trips were reduced, as were falls among males (75–84 years old) with a fear of falling or negative fall history.
This study examined the six-month prevalence, risk factors, and costs of falls in older people using home support services who are at risk of falling. Of the 109 participants, 70.6 per cent reported ≥ one fall in the previous six months, and 27.5 per cent experienced multiple falls. Although there was no statistically significant difference in any fall-related risk factor between fallers (1+ falls) and non-fallers (0 falls), fallers had clinically important trends towards lower levels of physical, social, and psychological functioning. There was no statistically significant difference between fallers and non-fallers in the total per-person costs of use of health services in the previous six months; however, there were significant differences between groups in specific types of health services. The multivariate analysis revealed the presence of five risk factors for falls: neurological disorder (e.g., cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease), age ≥ 85 years, environmental hazards, previous slip or trip, and visual impairment.
A search for nasopharyngeal carriers of Streptococcus pneumoniae was conducted in 573 children hospitalized in Durban, South Africa. Study subjects were divided into two groups, comprising 305 new admissions and 268 patients who had been hospitalized for more than 24 h. Of the 573 children 178(31%) yielded pneumococci on nasopharyngeal culture; 99 (32%) and 79 (29%) children in the new admission and in-patient categories respectively. Twenty-one (12%) pneumococci were resistant to penicillin, including 11 strains that were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Resistant pneumoeoeei belonged exclusively to serotypes 6 and 19 (Danish nomenclature), which were also the commonest serotypes among penicillin-sensitive strains. Factors that correlated with carriage of penicillin-resistant Pneumococci were hospitalization for more than 24 h, young age and recent exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics.
We have surveyed the region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster which encodes the yellow, achaete and scute genes for restriction map variation. Two natural populations, one from North Carolina, U.S.A. and the other from southern Spain were screened for variation at about 70 restriction sites and for variation due to DNA insertion or deletion events in 120 kilobases of DNA. Mean heterozygosity per nucleotide was estimated to be 0·0024 and 15 large insertions were found in the 49 chromosomes screened. Extensive disequilibrium between polymorphic sites was found across much of the region in the North Carolina population. The frequency of large insertions, which usually correspond to transposable genetic elements, is significantly lower than has been observed in autosomal regions of the genome. This is predicted for X-linked loci by certain models of transposable element evolution, where copy number is restricted by virtue of the recessive deleterious effects of the insertions. Our results appear to support such models. The deficiency of insertions may in this case be enhanced by hitch-hiking effects arising from the high level of disequilibrium.