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Previous studies suggest that children with congenital cardiac diagnoses report lower quality of life when compared with healthy norms. A few studies have evaluated quality of life specifically in children born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a condition requiring several surgeries before age three. The aim of this study was to use an empirically validated and standardised measure – the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory – to evaluate quality of life in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and compare the findings with similar, medically complicated samples.
The parent-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory was administered, and demographic information was collected through an internet portal. A total of 121 caregivers of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome responded. The sample included children aged 2–18 years (M=10.81 years). Independent sample t-tests were used to compare our sample with published norms of healthy children and children with acute or chronic illnesses.
Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome were rated as having significantly lower overall quality-of-life scores (M=59.69) compared with published norms of children without medical diagnoses (M=83.00) and those with acute (M=78.70) or chronic (M=77.19) illnesses (p<0.001). Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome complicated by a stroke or seizure (15%) reported the lowest quality of life. The results held for all subscales (p<0.001).
Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome appear to be a significantly vulnerable population with difficulties in functioning across psychosocial domains and across the age span. Further research is required to facilitate early identification of the need for resources for these children and families, especially for children who experience additional medical complications.
Shows how the study of modern Arabic literature was transformed by Mustafa Badawi. Prior to the 1960s the study of Arabic literature, both Classical and Modern, had barely been emancipated from the academic approaches of Orientalism. The appointment of Mustafa Badawi as Oxford University's first Lecturer in Modern Arabic Literature changed the face of this subject as Badawi showed, through his teaching and research that Arabic literature was making vibrant contributions to global culture and thought. Part biography, part collection of critical essays, this volume celebrates Badawi's immense contribution to the field and explores his role as a public intellectual in the Arab world and the west. Key Features: Illustrates the critical affiliations and teaching methods of the outstanding scholar of modern Arabic literature in the 20th century * Assesses some of the problems faced by an outstanding intellectual and translator in bridging Arabic and western cultures * Includes studies from eminent specialists who were taught by Badawi, showing the type of work he inspired, including Julia Bray, Hilary Kilpatrick, Marliyn Booth, Miriam Cooke and Paul Starkey
It is no exaggeration to describe Mustafa Badawi as the father of the study of modern Arabic literature in the UK and the USA when one considers the impact of his career and his publications, followed by those of his energetic stable of doctoral students, most of whom are represented in this volume. His arrival in Oxford in 1964 as University Lecturer in modern Arabic literature was to transform the teaching of and research into this subject, which until that time had been treated as a marginal extension of classical Arabic and was very much taught as such. His lectures were a fresh and exciting invitation to consider Arabic as another literature of the modern world with a familiar range of genres and poetics fit to stand alongside and to interact with those areas of literary scholarship and criticism which had been long established in western universities. For the sake of Arabic, it was fortuitous that Badawi was trained in the University of Alexandria and in the UK in English literature: he published important work on Coleridge's Shakespearean criticism, and his engagement with Shakespearean studies remained constant throughout his career. When he was appointed to the Arabic post in Oxford, his passion for teaching, researching and translating English literature and criticism he simply applied to the modern literature of his native language, and thus began the transformation of its treatment in western academia. Badawi's arrival in Oxford also had a more subtle impact but one of far-reaching significance. The majority of academic posts in departments of Arabic and Middle Eastern Studies in the West have typically been devoted to history, the various branches of Islamic studies and the study of the Arabic language, while centres of area studies of the Near and Middle East have understandably concentrated on the modern history and the social sciences relating to the region. Badawi's post in Oxford was the first of its kind in that university. It has not always been easy to maintain and enhance the profile of the discipline of literature in these programmes.
This chapter provides an overview of Earth system models, the various model ‘flavours’, their state of development including model evaluation, benchmarking and optimization against observational data and their application to climate change issues.
The Earth system can be conceptualized as a suite of interacting physical, chemical, biological and anthropogenic processes that regulate the planet’s low of matter and energy. Earth system models (ESMs; Box 5.1 ) are built to mirror these processes. In fact, ESMs are the only tool available to the scientific community to investigate the system properties of the Earth, as we do not have an alternative planet to manipulate that could serve as a scientist’s laboratory.
The term ‘Earth system model’ is commonly used to describe coupled land–ocean–atmosphere models that include interactive biogeochemical components. Such models have developed progressively from the physical climate models first created in the 1960s and 1970s. Conventional climate models apply physical laws to simulate the general circulation of atmosphere and ocean. As our understanding of the natural and anthropogenic controls on climate has grown, and given the steady advances in computing power, global climate models have been extended to include more comprehensive representations of biological and geochemical processes, involving the addition of the various interacting components of the Earth system with their own feedback mechanisms. Figure 5.1 shows the conceptual differences between a conventional global coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and an ESM. In terms of the coupling between components, ESMs are more complex, and they have correspondingly higher computational demands.
We sought to determine attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) among mental health clinicians at nine academic centers in the United States.
A self-report questionnaire was distributed to 706 mental health clinicians, including psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, social workers, nurses, and psychologists.
The study showed that most clinicians consider BPD a valid diagnosis, although nearly half reported that they preferred to avoid these patients. The clinician's occupational subgroup was significantly related to attitude. Staff nurses had the lowest self-ratings on overall caring attitudes, while social workers had the highest. Social workers and psychiatrists had the highest ratings on treatment optimism. Social workers and psychologists were most optimistic about psychotherapy effectiveness, while psychiatrists were most optimistic about medication effectiveness. Staff nurses had the lowest self-ratings on empathy toward patients with BPD and treatment optimism.
Negative attitudes persist among clinicians toward BPD, but differ among occupational subgroups. Overall, caring attitudes, empathy, and treatment optimism were all higher among care providers who had cared for a greater number of BPD patients in the past 12 months.
These findings hold important implications for clinician education and coordination of care for patients with BPD.
Amongst the most exciting of the new possibilities in the Amsterdam Treaty is the provision enabling European legislation to be made in relation to equality and non-discrimination. This provision is contained in Article 13 EC, which as then agreed, stated:
Without prejudice to the other provisions of this Treaty and within the limits of the powers conferred by it upon the Community, the Council, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission and after consulting the European Parliament, may take appropriate action to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.
It was clear from the outset that action under Article 13 depended for its content on proposals from the European Commission. As soon as the Amsterdam Treaty was agreed the Commission began to mull this over. There was time to do this. Although the Amsterdam Treaty was signed by the high representatives on 2 October 1997 it required ratification by each Member State to come into effect. This was not concluded until 1 May 1999, and the hiatus provided a useful opportunity for some preliminary consideration as to the effect that would be given to it. For this purpose the Commission held a major conference over 3 and 4 December 1998 to discuss what could and should be done with Article 13.
In the more than two hundred years since his death, Cook's reputation has been much discussed, opinion ranging from celebration of his achievement to more subjective assessments of the long-term implications of his voyages in those countries of the Pacific which he visited. The thirteen essays in this book, grouped in four sections, continue the debate. 'The Years in England' cover Cook's Whitby background and the part played by the Royal Society in the Pacific ventures of the period. 'The Pacific Voyages' investigates the clash between the Endeavour's crew and the Aborigines on the banks of the Endeavour River, the process by which Cook and his crews became 'Polynesianised', Cook's visit to the Hawaiian Islands, and his call at Nootka Sound, both on his final voyage. 'Captain Cook and his Contemporaries' views other European explorers in the Pacific, and concludes with an analysis of Russian attitudes towards Cook. 'The Legacy of Captain Cook' compares Cook's death on Hawaii with the later killing of a missionary on Eromanga, examines fluctuations in Cook's reputation, and describes life on board the replica of the Endeavour. GLYNDWR WILLIAMS is Emeritus Professor of History, Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London. His many books include an edition of Captain Cook's Voyages, 1768-79, from the official accounts derived from Cook's journals.