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Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are characterized by neurocognitive and functional deficits with marked heterogeneity. It has been suggested that BD with a history of psychotic symptoms (BD-P) could constitute a phenotypically homogeneous subtype characterized by greater neurocognitive and functional impairments, or by a distinct trajectory of such deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive and functional course of euthymic BD-P, euthymic BD patients without a history of psychosis (BD-NP), stabilized patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, during a five-year follow-up.
Neurocognitive and psychosocial function was examined in 100 euthymic patients with BD (50 BD-P, 50 BD-NP), 50 stabilized patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and 51 healthy controls (HC) at baseline (T1), and after a 5-year follow-up (T2).
The course of both neurocognitive performance and functional outcome of patients with SZ and BD (BD-P and BD-NP) is stable. The profile of neurocognitive impairment of patients with SZ or BD (BD-P and BD-NP), is similar, with only quantitative differences circumscribed to certain domains, such as working memory. The subgroup of patients with BD-NP does not show functional deterioration.
We have not found evidence of progression in the neurocognitive or psychosocial impairment in any of the three groups of patients, although it cannot be dismissed the possibility of a subset of patients with a progressive course. Other longitudinal studies with larger samples and longer duration are necessary to confirm these findings.
Based on the data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), we statistically study the photometric properties of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and dwarf nuclei in the Virgo core (M87) region. We found an obvious negative color (g - z) gradient in GC system associate with M87, i.e. GCs in the outer regions are bluer. However, such color gradient does not exist in UCD system, neither in dwarf nuclei system around M87. In addition, we found that many UCDs are surrounded by extended, low surface brightness envelopes. The dwarf nuclei and UCDs show different spatial distributions from GCs, with dwarf nuclei and UCDs (especially for the UCDs with visible envelopes) lying at larger distances to the Virgo center. These results support the view that UCDs (at least for a fraction of UCDs) are more tied to dwarf nuclei than to GCs.
The neurocognitive trajectory in bipolar disorder (BD) is variable, with controversial findings, and most evidence come from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to examine the course of neurocognitive functioning in a sample of euthymic BD patients in comparison with a control group during a 5-year follow-up.
Ninety-nine euthymic bipolar patients and 40 healthy controls were assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery (six neurocognitive domains) at baseline (T1) and then at 5-year follow-up (T2) in a longitudinal study.
No evidence of a progression in neurocognitive dysfunction was found either in cognitive composite index or in any of the neurocognitive domains for the whole cohort. However, there was a negative correlation between number of manic episodes and hospitalisations due to manic episodes and change in neurocognitive composite index (NCI) during the follow-up. Moreover, patients with higher number of manic and hypomanic episodes have a greater decrease in NCI, working memory and visual memory. History of psychotic symptoms was not related to the trajectory of neurocognitive impairment.
Our results suggest that, although the progression of cognitive decline is not a general rule in BD, BD patients who have a greater number of manic or hypomanic episodes may constitute a subgroup characterised by the progression of neurocognitive impairment. Prevention of manic and hypomanic episodes could have a positive impact on the trajectory of cognitive function.
Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Our group has focused on the study of ribosomal RNA and nucleolar structure in this organism. In this work, we address the cellular location of fibrillarin in epimastigotes. As a conserved and unreported feature in trypanosomatids, fibrillarin in T. cruzi is encoded by two genes that differ by approximately 35% in their deduced amino acid sequences (TcFib 1 and TcFib 2). Chimaeric fluorescent versions of TcFib1 and TcFib2 were individually expressed in T. cruzi cells. Both transfected cultures showed cells with a nucleolar fluorescent signal. We have not found any evident distinction between the structure or expression of Tcfibrillarins to propose a functional difference in cells. With the aid of an anti-TcFib 2 antibody, it was found that the endogenous protein relocates outside of the nucleolus in stationary epimastigotes. This was also the case in metacyclic trypomastigotes observed from aged cultures. The significance of this observation is not known, but a deficiency of fibrillarin nucleolar retention correlates with the observed reduction in the abundance of the pre-ribosomal RNAs species at stationary phase, and suggests that the nucleolar location of this protein depends on physiological processes.
Hyperbranched structures containing pyrrole units were obtained from ortho-, meta- and para-diaminodiphenyldiacetylenes as AB2 type monomers by one-step polymerization.
The para-hyperbranched compound was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Microscopy studies identify two phases. The first is the insoluble one which gives origin to flake type structures. The second is acetone soluble phase, which generated crystalline structure manifesting in optic anisotropy and rhomboids and triangles dendrimeric structures.
High-frequency filters are essential components in the radio frequency (RF) front-ends for telecommunications and remote-sensing systems. They enable to properly suppress out-of-band additive noise, external – i.e., out-of-system – and internal – i.e., inter-channel – interferences, and nonlinear distortion perturbations in the transmitter and receiver modules of the overall transceiver. Thus, a proper emitted RF signal which does not contaminate other co-channel services can be assured in the transmitter part, whereas a certain quality for the detected signal or “sensitivity” is guaranteed at the receiver end.
When designing passive filters, the obtaining of filtering transfer functions featuring high selectivity and low-power insertion loss in compact-size circuits is a major concern . In the case of active filters, some other relevant factors, such as linearity, noise performance, and power transmission gain must also be considered . Regarding the technologies commonly employed for their practical realization, the choice is mainly driven by the application intended for the filtering device that is to be developed. For example, bulky waveguide and air-/dielectric-cavity resonators are preferred in bandpass filters and multiplexers for satellite communications, where small power insertion loss and high power-handling capability are mandatory issues , . Integrated implementations in gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) processes have been in great demand for portable mobile terminals , .
Discovery of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in the past 15 years blurs the once thought clear division between classic globular clusters (GCs) and early-type galaxies. The intermediate nature of UCDs, which are larger and more massive than typical GCs but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies, has triggered hot debate on whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin or merely the most extreme GCs. Previous studies of various scaling relations, stellar populations and internal dynamics did not give an unambiguous answer to the primary origin of UCDs. In this contribution, we present the first ever detailed study of global dynamics of 97 UCDs (rh ≳ 10 pc) associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. We found that UCDs follow a different radial number density profile and different rotational properties from GCs. The orbital anisotropies of UCDs are tangentially-biased within ~ 40 kpc of M87 and become radially-biased with radius further out. In contrast, the blue GCs, which have similar median colors to our sample of UCDs, become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc. Our analysis suggests that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the scenario that most UCDs originated from the tidally threshed dwarf galaxies.
Novel hyperbranched molecules containing pyrrole units were obtained from ortho-, meta- and para-diaminodiphenyldiacetylenes, as AB2 type monomers by one-step polymerization. Diacetylenic fragments reacted with terminal amino groups in the presence of copper chloride to give pyrrole units. Diaminodiphenyldiacetylene monomers have been synthesized from ethynilanilines in three steps. The novel monomers and hyperbranched molecules were characterized by NMR, IR and thermal analysis. Some conductivity proofs were also carried out and this behavior was assessed.
The electronic behavior of some of these molecules was studied by means of theoretical methods. DFT optimization processes were carried out for three structures derived from the generation growing. There are at least two conformational isomers of the structure (meta- and para-) which show conductivity properties, the meta-isomer shows semiconductor nature but this species is hard to modeling because the steric hindrances cause optimization problems and indeed the third generation species was not achieved. In other context, the para-isomer allows the calculation of three generations and shows clearly a tendency to narrow the energy gap between the frontier orbitals but besides the behavior of the HOMO-1 seems reinforce the conductivity phenomenon.
This article sketches an archeology of the apocryphal myth of Santa Efigenia, the Ethiopian virgin saint celebrated in the southern coastal of valley of Cañete, Peru. The history of Santa Efigenia is used to analyze the invention of popular myths and processions in a rural community in contrast to the cornerstone of popular national religiosity in Peru, the Lord of the Miracles (Señor de los Milagros). The popular worship and diffusion of these devotions and processions intersect with the contested formation of national identity in early and late twentieth century Peru. Moreover, they speak to how traditional and popular forms of religious worship are valued and devalued.
The African diaspora in Peru and the Pacific coast of South America has been difficult to historicize because of the scant cultural evidence for an Afro-Andean nostalgia or separation from an African homeland. The rediscovery and devotion of Santa Efigenia and her emergent popularity in Peru and larger presence in Brazil and Cuba is compelling evidence that Afro-Peruvians have a direct connection with African culture and history and the early religious history of Catholic saints and virgins.
The Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) project is an ongoing 3D spectroscopic survey of 600 nearby galaxies of all kinds. This pioneer survey is providing valuable clues on how galaxies form and evolve. Processed through spectral synthesis techniques, CALIFA datacubes allow us to, for the first time, spatially resolve the star formation history of galaxies spread across the color-magnitude diagram. The richness of this approach is already evident from the results obtained for the first ~ 1/6 of the sample. Here we show how the different galactic spatial sub-components (“bulge” and “disk”) grow their stellar mass over time. We explore the results stacking galaxies in mass bins, finding that, except at the lowest masses, galaxies grow inside-out, and that the growth rate depends on a galaxy's mass. The growth rate of inner and outer regions differ maximally at intermediate masses. We also find a good correlation between the age radial gradient and the stellar mass density, suggesting that the local density is a main driver of galaxy evolution.
Relapses in cocaine abusers in treatment are an important problem. The majority of patients are incapable of sustaining abstinence over any length of time. To identify the factors associated to relapses risk in the cocaine use can be an optimal choice to improve the treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze relapse-risk factors in cocaine-dependent patients on treatment. Participants were 102 patients who had begun outpatient treatment at a public health center in Spain. Some functional areas and cocaine use are evaluated for a period of six months. A structural equations model was used to identify possible predictive variables. The results show that social-family environment and economic-employment situation were associated with greater risk of relapse. Likewise, the social-family environment was related to severity of addiction. It is concluded that the incorporation of family intervention strategies and vocational/employment counseling may help to reduce relapse rates in cocaine addicts receiving treatment.
A brief summary about the research lines of our group is presented. The common factor in all the propositions is the fullerene in a chemical reactive role. The chemistry proposed is novel and can yield interesting results.
This paper deals with several concrete properties and to what extent they are influenced by slag and limestone filler, either one or both of them are included. Concrete was designed for low paste content, this is, a water reducing admixture (WR) was used to limit mixing water content. The results are compared with concrete made with commercial composite cement, blended during milling. Concrete was tested for compressive strength, sorptivity, resistivity, and water penetration under pressure. The volume of paste in all concrete mixes was the same.
Results showed the effect of slag on concrete transport properties. The effect of limestone filler was minimal either admixed solely or in conjunction with slag. On the other hand, blended cement appeared to be less effective on improving concrete transport properties. Compressive strength was less affected than transport properties by slag inclusion.
While many previous studies have looked at the worldwide changes and impacts of climate change and related variability on water resources, few have focused on an assessment of the specific effects and needed adaptation and mitigation for water systems in cities across the globe. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on the water sector (IPCC, 2008) summarizes links between climate change and water through all of the physical elements of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle, ocean components, linkages to water supply, and global effects, but does not focus specifically on urban water systems. Similarly, the ADAPT Project (Aerts and Droogers, 2004) looked at adaptation for regional water management in seven typical watersheds across the world. However, most of this study was focused on surface water resources and their impacts on agriculture, food supply, energy production, and flood hazards, or on other impacts including groundwater resources, but did not focus on cities. There is thus an urgent need for a focused overview of the water supply and wastewater treatment sector in urban areas.
The range of challenges related to climate change and cities in regard to the water supply and wastewater treatment sector is very great, depending on geography, economics, administrative capacity, and demography. Many of the challenges are general, and some are more specific to particular cities. Accordingly, this chapter includes capsule descriptions of water supply and wastewater treatment in four cities that illustrate a variety of situations in which adaptation to climate change will be needed.
The spatial distribution of Farfantepenaeus shrimp was analysed in the Laguna Madre of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling was carried out on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitats at five sites located along the coastal lagoon. Two nocturnal surveys were conducted during winter in 2005 (January–February), collecting a total of 3268 shrimp individuals. SAV beds were composed of a mixture of drift algae (mainly Digenia simplex), attached algae (mainly Penicillus capitatus and Udotea occidentalis) and seagrass (mainly Halodule wrightii). Farfantepenaeus aztecus was more abundant (39.5%) than F. duorarum (36.8%), and the remaining 23.7% corresponding to small unidentified Farfantepenaeus spp. were classified as recruits. Abundance of F. aztecus was significantly higher at sites 2 and 4, whereas F. duorarum did not show significant distribution differences along the Laguna Madre. Recruits, juveniles and total shrimp tended to decrease significantly at the northern part of the lagoon (site 1), where substrate was dominated by drifting algae and seagrasses were scarce or absent. The abundance of shrimp was positively related to seagrass biomass and/or water temperature, whereas there was a negligible or negative relationship with algal biomass. With the exception of subadults, a significant positive linear relationship between seagrass and shrimp abundance was fitted, indicating an increase in number of individuals of both species with increasing seagrass biomass. This suggests that seagrass is the most important component of SAV beds influencing the abundance of F. aztecus and F. duorarum along this hypersaline coastal lagoon.
The population of the Vulnerable Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti has experienced a gradual recovery from 38 pairs (1974) to 198 (2004). We analysed the spatial and temporal variation of the demographic parameters for 1981–2004. Annual productivity was 1.19–1.32 chicks per female and adult survival rate 0.918–0.986. Survival during the post-fledging period was 0.894 and the annual survival rate of the dispersing individuals was 0.561. Three phases of population evolution were distinguished: growth (1981–1993), stability or slight decrease (1994–1999) and growth (2000–2004). Variation in adult survival seems to explain this pattern for the first two periods. However, a large disparity between the observed growth rate and the modelled population growth in 2000–2004 is best explained if we assume that a decrease in the age of recruitment took place. This is supported by the recent increase in the frequency of non-adult birds in breeding pairs. The survival of unpaired eagles in dispersal areas is becoming more important for the maintenance of current population growth. Spatial variation of adult survival and breeding success is not congruent with the observed growth rate of the population, which suggests the existence of an important flow of individuals between populations. These results highlight the importance of addressing the conservation of the species from a global perspective and the need to focus on adult survival in breeding territories and on non-adult survival in dispersal areas.