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En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
This chapter reports on three experiments using the cross-modal lexical priming paradigm to explore whether interlingual homographs (i.e., words with competing semantic and overlapping orthographic representations) are activated selectively or nonselectively. The literature is somewhat controversial when it comes to the question of how bilinguals process ambiguous language. While the majority of studies suggest language nonselectivity, some research seems to indicate selective bilingual lexical access depending on the user’s linguistic needs and demands. In Experiment 1, which serves as a baseline, Spanish-English bilinguals listened to sentences in which a critical prime (e.g., trial) was associated with the English meaning of a homograph target (cases). In Experiment 2, participants were presented with homograph-translation primes (e.g., the stimulus married is presented before cases). Experiment 3, aside from the homograph-translation priming from Experiment 2, included a Spanish language mode induction variable presented at the beginning of the experiment. Results point to the effects of proficiency and priming in modulating language coactivation.
Multi-proxy analyses of a sequence spanning the Younger Dryas (YD) in the Glacial Lake Hind basin of Manitoba provides insight into regional paleohydrology and paleovegetation of meltwater rivers and lakes spanning >4000 yr; the sequence is controlled by 25 new accelerator mass spectrometry ages. This lake, dammed by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, overflowed into Lake Agassiz. The pre-YD interval records rapid sedimentation from meltwaters that headed in proglacial lakes in the Canadian Prairies that are known to have been catastrophically released when ice or sediment barriers were breached. Pollen in this phase is dominated by pre-Quaternary forms eroded from Paleocene bedrock. At the onset of the YD at ~12.8 cal ka, the sudden appearance of concentrations of nanodiamonds, high-temperature magnetic spherules, platinum, and iridium provide evidence of an extraterrestrial (ET) event that others have identified at more than 40 sites in North America. Major changes in oceans and climate, and the catastrophic outflow of nearby Lake Agassiz at the onset of the YD, may be related. Lower water levels and a reduction of Souris River inflow to Lake Hind followed, which are reflected by more clayey and organic-rich sediments and a decrease in pre-Quaternary palynomorphs. This may have resulted from the deepening of river valleys caused by the release of meltwater triggered by the ET event. Wetlands then began to develop, leading to peat deposition from 12.3 to 11 cal ka. This was followed by a fluvial episode depositing sand and then by increased Holocene aridity that resulted in accumulation of a thick sequence of dune sands. A dry woodland environment with a mix of conifers (especially Picea and Larix) and deciduous trees (especially Populus and Quercus) covered the uplands from ~13 to 10 cal ka.
As an introductory note to the topic of this chapter, we would like to refer to the comments presented in the introduction of our work on the various forms of deprivation of liberty prior to the final judgment in the Argentine Republic. Given the federal, republican and representative system of government adopted under Section 1 of the Argentine Federal Constitution, the enactment of the civil, commercial, criminal, mining, and labour and social security codes, as well as of general laws applicable throughout country, lies within the powers of the Federal Congress only (Section 75(12)), which means that these bodies of regulations apply to the whole territory of the country. On the other hand, the enactment of procedural rules lies within the powers of the provinces, which, in exercising such power, are entitled to pass their own codes of procedure, including the code of criminal procedure, which is the one we will be dealing with in this work. Based on time, extension, and specificity reasons, this work will only focus on the federal jurisdiction and the jurisdiction of the city of Buenos Aires; however, it should be noted that there are no significant differences in the regulation of coercive measures (involving deprivation of liberty) within those jurisdictions and the jurisdictions of the rest of the provinces. This chapter will only refer to individuals over 18 years of age.
OVERUSE OF CRIMINALIZATION
Under the Argentine legal system, both substantive law – such as the CC – and procedural law – such as the FCCP and similar codes of the provinces and City of Buenos Aires – as well as any other law, must be in line with the provisions of the FC, which is our fundamental law, and international treaties of constitutional rank (as per Sections 5 and 31 of the FC).
We used two sunflower genotypes displaying pericarp-imposed dormancy at high incubation temperatures (i.e. 30°C) to investigate the role of the pericarp as a limitation to oxygen availability to the embryo (hypoxia), and its impact on embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content and sensitivity to ABA. Results showed that both genotypes displayed very different oxygen threshold values for inhibition of embryo germination when incubation was performed at 30°C. Expression of dormancy in one genotype was therefore related to exacerbated embryo sensitivity to hypoxia, whereas in the other genotype, the pericarp appeared to act as a more severe restraint to oxygen entry. Increased sensitivity to hypoxia was, in part, related to increased sensitivity to ABA, but not to alterations in ABA metabolism. The activity of pericarp-microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) at high temperatures was also assessed as a potential determinant of hypoxia to the embryo. Oxygen consumption in pericarps incubated at 30°C was attenuated with antibiotics, which concomitantly promoted achene germination. In agreement with the observed more severe oxygen deprivation to the embryo exerted by the pericarp, the bacterial load in the pericarp was significantly higher in the commercial hybrid than in the inbred line; however, the application of antibiotics strongly reduced the bacterial colony counts for each genotype. Different bacterial and fungal communities, assessed through their profiles of carbon-source utilization, were determined between genotypes and after treatment with antibiotics. This work highlights the relationship between enhancement of sensitivity to hypoxia with incubation temperature and seed dormancy expression, and suggests that microbial activity might be part of the mechanism through which hypoxia is imposed.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
The design of mixed-technology quasi-reflectionless planar bandpass filters (BPFs), bandstop filters (BSFs), and multi-band filters is reported. The proposed quasi-reflectionless filter architectures comprise a main filtering section that determines the power transmission response (bandpass, bandstop, or multi-band type) of the overall circuit network and auxiliary sections that absorb the reflected radio-frequency (RF) signal energy. By loading the input and output ports of the main filtering section with auxiliary filtering sections that exhibit a complementary transfer function with regard to the main one, a symmetric quasi-reflectionless behavior can be obtained at both accesses of the overall filter. The operating principles of the proposed filter concept are shown through synthesized first-order BPF and BSF designs. Selectivity-increase techniques are also described. They are based on: (i) cascading in-series multiple first-order stages and (ii) increasing the order of the filtering sections. Moreover, the RF design of quasi-reflectionless multi-band BPFs and BSFs is discussed. A hybrid integration scheme in which microstrip-type and lumped-elements are effectively combined within the filter volume is investigated for size miniaturization purposes. For experimental validation purposes, two quasi-reflectionless BPF prototypes (one- and two-stage architectures) centered at 2 GHz and a second-order BSF prototype centered at 1 GHz were designed, manufactured, and measured.
The Zika virus is a newly emerging infection associated with increasingly large outbreaks especially in countries such as Brazil where an estimated 326,224 cases were confirmed between 2015 and 2018. Common symptoms associated with Zika include headache, conjunctivitis, fever, erythema, myalgia, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. However, the symptoms are usually self-limiting and last on average for 4 to 7 days, with patients typically not accessing the public healthcare system (SUS). In severe cases, symptoms include neurological disorders and neonatal malformations. A future Zika vaccine can contribute to decreasing the number of cases and associated complications. However, this has to be balanced against continuing costs to control this and other vector borne diseases. Consequently, information about consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical Zika vaccine can help with price setting discussions in Brazil starting with the private market before being considered within SUS.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among residents in one of the main provinces of Brazil (Minas Gerais) regarding their WTP for a hypothetical Zika vaccine with agreed characteristics. This included a mean effective protection of 80 percent, with the possibility of some local and systemic side-effects. The discussed price was USD 56.41 (BRL 180.00) per vaccination as this figure was utilized in a previous WTP study for a dengue vaccine.
Five hundred and seventeen people were interviewed. However, thirty would not be vaccinated even if the vaccine was free. Most of the resultant interviewees (489) were female (58.2 percent), were employed (71.2 percent), had private health insurance (52.7 percent), had household incomes above twice the minimum wage (69.8 percent) and did not have Zika (96.9 percent). The median individual maximum WTP for this hypothetical Zika vaccine was USD 31.34 (BRL 100.00).
WTP research can contribute to decision-making about possible prices alongside other economic criteria once a Zika vaccine becomes available in Brazil alongside other programmes to control the virus.
Bison antiquus Leidy, 1852 was one of the largest and most widely distributed megafaunal species during the Late Pleistocene in North America, giving rise to the modern plains bison in the middle Holocene. Despite the importance of the ancient bison, little is known about its feeding ecology. We employed a combination of extended mesowear, and mesowear III to infer the dietary preference and habitat use of three Mexican samples of B. antiquus. These included two northern samples—La Piedad-Santa Ana and La Cinta-Portalitos—from the Transmexican Volcanic Belt morphotectonic Province, as well as one southern sample—Viko Vijin—from the Sierra Madre del Sur morphotectonic province. We found that the northern Mexican samples were primarily nonstrict grazers, whereas the southern sample displays a pattern consistent with mixed feeding habits. This suggests variability among the diets of the bison from these samples, caused by different paleoenvironments. This evidence complements the paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the studied localities; for the northern samples, open prairies composed of patches of woodland or shrubland and, for the southern locality, a fluvial floodplain with short-lived vegetation. In both scenarios, grasses (Poaceae) were nondominant. The dietary habits of our samples of ancient bison in Mexico are the southernmost dietary inference for the species in North America and expand our knowledge of the dietary habits of B. antiquus during the Late Pleistocene.
The risks of polypharmacy can be far greater than the benefits, especially in the elderly. Comorbidity makes polypharmacy very prevalent in this population; thus, increasing the occurrence of adverse effects. To solve this problem, the most common strategy is to use lists of potentially inappropriate medications. However, this strategy is time consuming.
In order to minimize the expenditure of time, our group devised a pilot computer tool (Polimedication) that automatically processes lists of medication providing the corresponding Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions alerts and facilitating standardized reports. The drug lists for 115 residents in Santa Marta Nursing Home (Fundación San Rosendo, Ourense, Spain) were processed.
The program detected 10.04 alerts/patient, of which 74.29% were not repeated. After reviewing these alerts, 12.12% of the total (1.30 alerts/patient) were considered relevant. The largest number of alerts (41.48%) involved neuroleptic drugs. Finally, the patient's family physician or psychiatrist accepted the alert and made medication changes in 62.86% of the relevant alerts. The largest number of changes (38.64%) also involved neuroleptic drugs. The mean time spent in the generation and review of the warnings was 6.26 minute/patient. Total changes represented a saving of 32.77 € per resident/year in medication.
The application of Polimedication tool detected a high proportion of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in institutionalized elderly patients. The use of the computerized tool achieved significant savings in pharmaceutical expenditure, as well as a reduction in the time taken for medication review.
The increase of the absorption efficiency of boron (B) by plants is essential for increasing crop productivity. The intercalation of B in MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) is an alternative to evaluating how these materials can provide B to plants. In this work, a MgAl LDH intercalated with borate ions (Mg2Al-B-LDH) was synthesized by the constant pH coprecipitation method, and the material produced was evaluated as a matrix for storage and as a source of B for plants. The Mg2Al-B-LDH was characterized by XRD, ATR-FTIR, TGA-DTA, specific surface area, pore size and volume, and SEM. A bioassay was performed to verify the supply of B to plants from the two sources in the forms of H3BO3 and of Mg2Al-B-LDH to sunflower plants grown in pots. The LDH basal spacing value of 12.0 Å is characteristic of intercalation of tetraborate octahydrate ions [B4O5(OH)42−]·8H2O between the layers. There was an increase in the dry matter (DM) and B content of the plants relative to those treatments where no B was added. The lack of statistical difference for plant yield between the two sources of B suggests a lack of stability of the Mg2Al-B-LDH structure under the acidic condition of the soil.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of using the new Cardia Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch referring to the perforation of polyvinyl alcohol membrane.
Great advances have been made in the development of devices for closure of atrial septal defect. The Cardia Ultrasept II™ with interposed Goretex patch is the modified last generation of Cardia devices, having the advantage of a super-low profile within the atria and an integral locking delivery-retrieval mechanism that ensures safe deployment. In addition, with the interposition of the Goretex, it has been possible to abolish perforation of Ivalon’s membrane as a complication.
Methods and results
Patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defect with surrounding rims with a minimum length of 5 mm and who underwent atrial septal defect closure with the new Ultrasept II™ with Goretex patch were included from two paediatric cardiac centres. Primary end point was to determine perforation of the Goretex membrane at follow-up; secondary end point included right ventricular diastolic diameter. In total, 30 patients underwent atrial septal defect closure at a median age of 6 (1–29) years. At follow-up for 6 (range, 1–15) months, freedom from perforations was 100%. A continuous decrease in right ventricular diastolic diameter was found with an initial median of 30 (25–49) mm and after catheterisation of 27.5 (18–33) mm, p=0.01, and Z-score of 2.6 (1.7–3.6) versus 1.9 (1–2.9) after procedure, p=0.01.
The new modified generation of the Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch is a good alternative to achieve atrial septal defect closure safely and feasibly with no membrane perforation at follow-up.
To gain a deeper understanding of the retail food environment by investigating similarities and differences between objective measures and residents’ perspectives.
The study incorporated Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measures, in-store surveys and the results from a larger photovoice project. We combined these data using a convergent parallel mixed-methods approach.
We conducted this study in a low-income neighbourhood in Madrid (Spain) in 2016.
We assessed healthy food availability, accessibility and affordability using GIS-based measures and in-store audits. We also analysed the photographs and discussions from twelve participants who engaged in a photovoice project on their food environment.
Quantitative results depicted a widely served and highly accessible retail food environment, in which supermarkets scored highest in terms of healthy food availability (36·5 out of 39) and 98·9 % of residents could access a healthy food store within a walking travel distance of less than 15 min. Qualitative results showed that participants preferred small local businesses over supermarkets, and revealed built environment obstacles for elderly residents. They also highlighted how the socio-economic context constrained residents’ food choices.
People’s experienced retail food environment is different from the one quantitatively analysed. Results show the potential of using a mixed-methods approach to enrich food environment research and enhance public health interventions.
The polychaete Gallardoneris iberica was described in soft-bottom benthic habitats from the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coasts in 2012. Since then, successive studies have found this species in Spain, Italy and Croatia. The present study is the first to report G. iberica for Greece and Cyprus (42 new records) confirming its wide geographic distribution on southern European coasts. Taxonomic accounts and ecological preferences based on a large survey and review of available literature are being presented. The species was frequently found in habitats characterized by infralittoral muddy sands with variable organic matter and ‘Moderate’ ecological quality status; nevertheless it was also recorded in coarser and finer sediments, circalittoral mixed sediments, phytal substrates and undisturbed sites. Its relative abundance per sample was always lower than 2%. A review of the available ecological and geographic data of the other Gallardoneris species and a worldwide taxonomic key to Gallardoneris species are provided.
Any analysis of the current situation of women in connection with crimes and sentences in the Argentine Republic would not seem very different from the reality of any other Western country. The focus of this chapter will therefore be on what we view as the most relevant aspects of the deprivation of liberty of women in Argentina.
THE ISSUE FROM A CRIMINAL PERSPECTIVE
Quantification ofwomen's involvement in crimes
Since 1990, the Argentine Republic has seen an increase in the number of women engaged in actions that are considered crimes by the criminal law. Even while this statement might reasonably be held to be true, it should also be pointed out that Argentina keeps no records other than those relating to convicted persons and, in an incomplete manner, those of persons - without any distinction based on gender - who have been subject to a Deferred Judgment, similar to the common law concept of probation before sentence. Therefore we cannot speak of women offenders but only of convicted women, thus leaving an uncertain margin of obscure numbers.
The number of women convicted has increased at approximately the same rate as the total number of convictions over the whole country (men and women). If compared to the historical numbers of convictions for each sex, women's convictions still represent between 5% and 7% of total convictions. The increase in absolute numbers ofwomen's convictions coincides with the increase in the total number of convictions in the country over the last 20 years.
The above-mentioned obscure numbers are very important in Argentina, since every year, and throughout the whole country, statistics on criminal complaints show very significant values that are well above the rate of natural increase of the population, while convictions do not represent more than 2% to 3% of such complaints. There are devices such as Deferred Judgments which, precisely due to their nature, are not registered as convictions; but regardless of their deficient statistical recording, they do not alter the general impression of impunity resulting from comparing the number of complaints with the number of convictions, for both men and women.
Characteristics ofwomen's involvement in crimes
As we learn from international documents, female crimes have changed over the last 50 years.
The effect of heavy metal in fish has been the focus of extensive research for many years. However, the combined effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials is still a new subject that needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to examine histopathologic alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of lead (Pb), carbon nanotubes, and Pb+carbon nanotubes on their histological integrity, and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programs. For this, tilapia were exposed to Pb, carbon nanotubes and Pb+carbon nanotubes for 4 days. The main alterations observed were epithelial structure, hyperplasia and displacement of epithelial cells, and alterations of the structure and occurrence of aneurysms in the secondary lamella. The most severe alterations were related to the Pb+carbon nanotubes. We conclude that the oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the acute lead toxicity in Nile tilapias. This work draws attention to the implications of carbon nanomaterials released in the aquatic environment and their interaction with classical pollutants.
Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some major groups of reptiles such as amphisbaenians, a distinctive group with many morphological and ecological adaptations to fossorial life. Conditions of the fossorial environment might also affect host–parasite relationships. We investigated the presence and the potential prevalence of three genera of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan blood parasites (Hepatozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in the amphisbaenian Trogonophis wiegmanni, a fossorial worm lizard species from North West Africa. Blood parasite infection was not detected in T. wiegmanni, both in visual surveys of blood smears and using molecular methods to detect DNA of such parasites in the blood of the potential amphisbaenian hosts. We discuss how conditions of the fossorial environment might affect blood parasitaemias in amphisbaenians as well as in other fossorial reptiles.
The objective of the current work was to determine the association between food insecurity and frailty in older adults, within the context of a country with accelerated ageing and nutritional problems.
Cross-sectional analysis of a representative nationwide survey on health and nutrition.
Mexican nationwide survey.
A sample of 7108 adults aged 60 years or older living in communities, representative of Mexican older adults.
Multivariate regression and descriptive analyses of food insecurity and frailty were performed. From a total of 7108 adults aged 60 years or older, with a mean age of 70·7 years, most (54·7 %) were women. Food security categories were: 26·3 % had food security, 40·3 % had mild food insecurity, 20·5 % had moderate food insecurity and 12·9 % had severe food insecurity. Food insecurity categories were associated with frailty, with the severe category having the highest odds ratio of 2·41 (95 % CI 2·03, 2·86; P<0·001) after adjustment for confounding factors.
According to our results, food insecurity is associated to frailty, which in turn is a condition that renders the older adult at a higher risk of developing adverse outcomes. Targeted food programmes for older adults with a high risk of having food insecurity or of being frail may improve health in this population group.
Nucleolar assembly is a cellular event that requires the synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNA, in addition to the participation of pre-nucleolar bodies (PNBs) at the end of mitosis. In mammals and plants, nucleolar biogenesis has been described in detail, but in unicellular eukaryotes it is a poorly understood process. In this study, we used light and electron microscopy cytochemical techniques to investigate the distribution of nucleolar components in the pathway of nucleolus rebuilding during closed cell division in epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis. Silver impregnation specific for nucleolar organizer regions and an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid regressive procedure to preferentially stain ribonucleoprotein revealed the conservation and dispersion of nucleolar material throughout the nucleoplasm during cell division. Furthermore, at the end of mitosis, the argyrophilic proteins were concentrated in the nucleolar organizer region. Unexpectedly, accumulation of nucleolar material in the form of PNBs was not visualized. We suggest that formation of the nucleolus in epimastigotes of T. cruzi occurs by a process that does not require the concentration of nucleolar material within intermediate nuclear bodies such as mammalian and plant PNBs.