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Advanced biomaterials that mimic the structure and function of native tissues and permit stem cells to adhere and differentiate is of paramount importance in the development of stem cell therapies for bone defects. Successful bone repair approaches may include an osteoconductive scaffold that permits excellent cell adhesion and proliferation, and cells with an osteogenic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cell proliferation, viability and osteocyte differentiation of equine-derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (EqMSCs) when seeded onto biocompatible and biodegradable calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHA) tubular-shaped bacterial cellulose scaffolds (BC-TS) of various sizes. The biocompatible gel-like BC-TS was synthesized using the bacterium Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans under static culture in oxygen-permeable silicone tubes. The BC-TS scaffolds were modified using a periodate oxidation to yield biodegradable scaffolds. Additionally, CdHA was deposited in the scaffolds to mimic native bone tissues. The morphological properties of the resulting BC-TS and its composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the BC-TS and its composites to support and maintain EqMSCs growth, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro was also assessed. BC-TS and its composites exhibited aligned nanofibril structures. MTS assay demonstrated increasing proliferation and viability with time (days 1, 2 and 3). Cell-scaffold constructs were cultured for 8 days under osteogenic conditions and the resulting osteocytes were positive for alizarin red. In summary, biocompatible and biodegradable CdHA BC-TS composites support the proliferation, viability and osteogenic differentiation of EqMSCs cultured onto its surface in vitro, allowing for future potential use for tissue engineering therapies.
The effect of the radiation component of the space environment on polyimide films is reviewed. Experimental data obtained by electron spin resonance and dynamical mechanical analysis proved that the ionizing radiation generates free radicals with a long lifetime through a dominant chain scission mechanism. The radiation-induced shift of the glass transition of polyimide towards lower values confirms the decrease of the average molecular mass of the polymer during irradiation. The importance of polyimide for space exploration is critically analyzed.
The development of synthetic materials with inherent bone properties would allow the safe restoration of bone function and reduce current risks associated with the use of grafts. This study investigated the development of bacterial cellulose–hydroxyapatite composite (CdHA-BC) as a potential bone substitute material. Composites of bacterial cellulose (BC) and oxidized, degradable, cellulose (OBC) were mineralized by sequential incubation in calcium chloride and aqueous sodium phosphate to form a calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHA). The CdHA produced in BC and OBC is similar in morphology and chemistry to the hydroxyapatite found in natural bone. The formation of CdHA is supported by XRD, and EDS results. The CdHA-BC and CdHA-OBC composites degrade in a simulated aqueous physiological environment.
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