A retrospective cross-sectional study including patient admissions to the Children’s National Hospital between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020.
Among 12,451 patient admissions between March 15 and December 31, 2020 (cohort 1), 8,162 (66%) were tested for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and 249 (2.0%) were positive. Among 10,986 patient admissions between April 1 and December 31, 2020 (cohort 2), 844 (8%) were tested for s-RV upon admission and 160 were positive. Thus, 1.5% of patient admissions were associated with laboratory-confirmed s-RVIs. Among the 49,901 patient admissions during a viral season between October 1, 2015, and March 31, 2020 (cohort 3), 7,539 (15%) were tested for s-RV upon admission and 4,531 were positive; thus, 9.0% of patient admissions were associated with laboratory-confirmed s-RVIs. hHRV/rENT was the most detected virus, but the detection rate decreased substantially (31% vs 18%; P < .001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. No patients had RSV, influenza, hMPV, hPIV, or hCoV detected upon admission after April 21, 2020. The 3 patient cohorts had no statistically significant difference in the percentage of ICU admissions (10.8% vs 15.0% vs 14.2%; P > .05) or death at discharge (0.8% vs 0.6% vs 0.5%; P > .05).
Compared to COVID-19, s-RVI cases were associated with a higher proportion of inpatient admissions but were similar in ICU admission and death rates in hospitalized pediatric patients. Public health interventions for preventing COVID-19 were highly effective in preventing pediatrics s-RVIs.