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The economic advisers of the 1924 Dawes Committee enacted currency and banking reforms as a means of resolving financial and geopolitical problems. Although the committee members stated that they had no plans to resolve the Ruhr occupation, evidence from the technical advisers demonstrated the opposite. Economists Edwin Kemmerer, Joseph Davis and Arthur Young sought to appease Franco-Belgian demands for a resolution to the reparations debate by balancing the German budget and reorganising the banking system, thereby also addressing the question of military occupation. This research delves into the advisers’ reports on public finance, currency stabilisation and the gold standard, arguing that their attempts to assuage reparation-related concerns rested on major reforms to German central banking.
This study aimed to identify the factors that counsellors working with refugees and asylum seekers in Australia consider influence their wellbeing and effectiveness. Nine employees in counsellor roles were interviewed. Thematic analysis indicated that government policies and practices were the greatest challenge. Factors facilitating effectiveness and wellbeing included having clear values, being able to see results for the client, receiving organisational support, working in a positive organisational culture, and having the support of family and friends. Factors inhibiting wellbeing included personal pressure to exert change, counsellor experience, feeling alienated from the community, lack of supervision, unclear organisational guidelines, and organisational values not being upheld. Along with the reported negative impact, positive psychological transformation was also reported. Through reflection on their clients’ strengths and resilience, participants reported feeling inspired, with increased effectiveness and wellbeing rather than vicarious trauma. This research contributes to the discussion about the psychologically harmful effects of government refugee and asylum seeker policy on counsellors and their clients.
In taste cells, taste receptors, their coupled G proteins and downstream signalling elements mediate the detection and transduction of sweet, bitter and umami compounds. In some intestinal endocrine cells, taste receptors and gustducin contribute to the release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and other gut hormones in response to glucose and non-energetic sweeteners. Conversely, taste cells have been found to express multiple hormones typically found in intestinal endocrine cells, e.g. GLP-1, glucagon, somatostatin and ghrelin. In the present study, by immunohistochemistry, multiple subsets of taste cells were found to express GLP-1. The release of GLP-1 from ‘endocrine taste cells’ into the bloodstream was examined. In wild-type mice, even after oesophagectomy and vagotomy, oral stimulation with glucose induced an elevation of GLP-1 levels in the bloodstream within 10 min. Stimulation of taste cell explants from wild-type mice with glucose led to the release of GLP-1 into the medium. Knocking out of the Tas1r3 gene did not eliminate glucose-stimulated GLP-1 release from taste cells in vivo. The present results indicate that a portion of the cephalic-phase rise in circulating GLP-1 levels is mediated by the direct release of GLP-1 from taste cells into the bloodstream.
We conducted surveys for the Endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa throughout southern California to evaluate the current distribution and status of the species. Surveys were conducted during 2000–2009 at 150 unique streams and lakes within the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Palomar mountains of southern California. Only nine small, geographically isolated populations were detected across the four mountain ranges, and all tested positive for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Our data show that when R. muscosa is known to be present it is easily detectable (89%) in a single visit during the frog's active season. We estimate that only 166 adult frogs remained in the wild in 2009. Our research indicates that R. muscosa populations in southern California are threatened by natural and stochastic events and may become extirpated in the near future unless there is some intervention to save them.
Evidence indicates low levels of hybridization in nature between the apple maggot (AM), Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and snowberry maggot (SB), Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, sibling species in the R. pomonella complex. We determined the effects of AM and SB pairings on mating frequencies and production of hybrid offspring in the laboratory. Mating frequency was lowest in SB female × AM male pairings, higher in AM female × SB male and AM female × AM male pairings, and highest in SB female × SB male pairings. A greater percentage of AM female × AM male pairs produced offspring (puparia) than did AM female × SB male and SB female × AM male pairs, and a greater percentage of AM female × SB male pairs produced puparia than did SB female × AM male pairs. Male or female F1 hybrids backcrossed with AM males and with other F1 hybrids were fertile. Results suggest most R. pomonella × R. zephyria hybrids found in nature are the result of R. zephyria males mating with R. pomonella females, with few from reciprocal matings. If true, this asymmetry could lower the incidence of hybridization in nature.
Twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of twin pregnancies with high risk for perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. This cross-sectional cohort study aimed to determine parenting stress and psychosocial health in mothers with a pregnancy complicated by TTTS that had been managed with laser ablation of communicating placental vessels. Questionnaires were sent to the mothers for completion: Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a semi-structured questionnaire related to mental health problems and support received from health professionals. Thirty-seven mothers were sent questionnaires with 32 being returned. The results showed that 47% of women had total scores equal to or greater than the 85th percentile on the PSI, which is considered abnormally high. Twenty-six per cent of mothers had evidence of depression on the EPDS. Mothers of children with prolonged medical conditions or neurological problems had significantly higher scores (p =.011). Parenting stress was not associated with high scores on the EPDS. Medical and midwifery staff were considered to provide high levels of support, with social work providing none or low levels of support. In conclusion, women whose TTTS pregnancy was managed by laser surgery have high levels of parenting stress. As the results showed that parenting stress cannot be predicted at the time of hospitalization, it is suggested that more support should be provided in hospital with further follow-up after discharge.
The aim of this tertiary hospital–based cohort study was to determine and compare perinatal outcome and neonatal morbidities of pregnancies with twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) before and after the introduction of a treatment program with laser ablation of placental communicating vessels. Twenty-seven pregnancies with Stage II–IV TTTS treated with amnioreduction were identified (amnioreduction group). The data were compared with that obtained from the first 31 pregnancies with Stage II–IV TTTS managed with laser ablation of placental communicating vessels (laser group). Comparisons were made for perinatal survival and neonatal morbidities including abnormalities on brain imaging. The median gestation at therapy was similar between the two groups (20 vs. 21 weeks, p = .24), while the median gestation at delivery was significantly greater in the laser treated group (34 vs. 28 weeks, p = .002). The perinatal survival rate was higher in the laser group (77.4% vs. 59.3%, p = .03). Neonatal morbidities including acute respiratory distress, chronic lung disease, requirement for ventilatory assistance, patent ductus arteriosus, hypotension, and oliguric renal failure had a lower incidence in the laser group. On brain imaging, ischemic brain injury was seen in 12% of the amnioreduction group and none of the laser group of infants (p = .01). In conclusion, these findings indicate that perinatal outcomes are improved with less neonatal morbidity for monochorionic pregnancies with severe TTTS treated by laser ablation of communicating placental vessels when compared to treatment by amnioreduction.
XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy) has been employed to evaluate the efficacy of a process designed to encapsulate and reduce TcO4- in cement matrices, thereby immobilizing Tc. The oxidation state of Se following bioremediation of Se by bacteria has also been determined by XANES. The XANES measurements were performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the respective K edges of Tc (21.0 keV) and Se (12.7 keV). Comparison of the XANES spectra of Tc in untreated cement to Tc in slag treated cement and to the chemical shifts of reference materials, shows that the oxidation state of Tc is the same in both cements. Thus, the addition of a reducing agent to the cement formulation does not significantly reduce the TcO4-. The common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is known to incorporate Se on or within the cell wall when exposed to a Se(IV) solution. The Se XANES spectra of B. subtilis, as well as bacillus isolated from selenium rich soil, show that the organisms reduce selenite to the red allotrope of elemental Se.
Postoperative infection rates were determined for gynecologic outpatient surgical procedures performed in a traditional operating room environment and a separate, recently opened, surgicenter within the same hospital. Infections were self-reported by attending surgeons responding to computer-generated line listings of their recent surgical procedures. Responses were obtained on 97.9% (612/625) of women having surgery in the operating room and 99.5% (629/632) of women with surgicenter procedures. The overall infection rate for reported women was 0.9% (11/1,241). The difference between operating room and surgicenter rates was not statistically significant. Postoperative infections occurred in 2.5% (3/118) of diagnostic laparoscopies with tubal lavage and 1.4% (3/214) of voluntary abortions by dilatation and evacuation and curettage (D&E&C). The five other infections were scattered among the remaining 25 procedure categories. Ten of the 11 infections were limited to the “clean-contaminated” wounds. No serious or life-threatening infections were encountered. The computer-assisted surveillance system worked well and was easily incorporated into the existing infection surveillance system. The degree of ascertainment of postoperative wound infections is unknown due to reliance on physician self-reporting. However, no patients requiring readmission for infection went unreported by the attending surgeons.
Zincite has been produced by the controlled hydrolysis of an alkylzinc alkoxide (ethylzinc-t-butoxide) resulting in ∼0.2 μm spherical particles with a narrow size distribution consisting of 150 Å crystallites. The surface area is 30 m2/g. Variation of the concentration of the water drastically affects the particle and crystallite sizes. The results of a systematic study of the hydrolysis parameters are reported here.
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