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Stratigraphic records extending to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (57,000–29,000 cal yr BP) or older in Beringia are extremely rare. Three stratigraphic sections in interior western Alaska show near continuous sedimentological and environmental progressions extending from at least MIS 3, if not older, through MIS 1 (14,000 cal yr BP–present). The Kolmakof, Sue Creek, and VABM (vertical angle bench mark) Kuskokwim sections along the central Kuskokwim River, once a highland landscape at the fringe of central and eastern Beringia, contain aeolian deposition and soil sequences dating beyond 50,000 14C yr BP. Thick peaty soil, shallow lacustrine, and tephra deposits represent the MIS 3 interstade (or older). Sand sheet and loess deposits, wedge cast development, and very thin soil development mark the later MIS 3 period and the transition into the MIS 2 stade (29,000–14,000 cal yr BP). Loess accumulation with thicker soil development occurred between ~16,000–13,500 cal yr BP at the MIS 2 and MIS 1 transition. After ~13,500 cal yr BP, loess accumulation waned and peat development increased throughout MIS 1. These stratigraphic sequences represent transitions between a warm and moist period during MIS 3, to a cooler and more arid period during MIS 2, then a return to warmer and moister climates in MIS 1.
This paper presents the findings of a preliminary study comparing implementation of design changes using various computer-aided design (CAD) working styles. Our study compares individuals’ and pairs’ completion of a series of changes to a toy car CAD model. We discuss the results in terms of productivity and value added ratio, derived from time-based quantitative data. We also discuss qualitative findings acquired through post-study surveys. Overall, our findings suggest that pairs were less efficient than individual designers due to overheads like communication, history dependency and complex couplings within the CAD model tree. However, it is also noteworthy that within each pair the lead participant's performance was at par with individual participants. Lastly, we also discuss behaviors and patterns that emerge as unique to the synchronous collaborative environment, motivating future work.
This study evaluated in a rigorous 18-month randomized controlled trial the efficacy of an enhanced vocational intervention for helping individuals with a recent first schizophrenia episode to return to and remain in competitive work or regular schooling.
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) was adapted to meet the goals of individuals whose goals might involve either employment or schooling. IPS was combined with a Workplace Fundamentals Module (WFM) for an enhanced, outpatient, vocational intervention. Random assignment to the enhanced integrated rehabilitation program (N = 46) was contrasted with equally intensive clinical treatment at UCLA, including social skills training groups, and conventional vocational rehabilitation by state agencies (N = 23). All patients were provided case management and psychiatric services by the same clinical team and received oral atypical antipsychotic medication.
The IPS–WFM combination led to 83% of patients participating in competitive employment or school in the first 6 months of intensive treatment, compared with 41% in the comparison group (p < 0.005). During the subsequent year, IPS–WFM continued to yield higher rates of schooling/employment (92% v. 60%, p < 0.03). Cumulative number of weeks of schooling and/or employment was also substantially greater with the IPS–WFM intervention (45 v. 26 weeks, p < 0.004).
The results clearly support the efficacy of an enhanced intervention focused on recovery of participation in normative work and school settings in the initial phase of schizophrenia, suggesting potential for prevention of disability.
In large, impersonal moral orders many of us wish to maintain good will toward our fellow citizens only if we are reasonably sure they will maintain good will toward us. The mutual maintaining of good will, then, requires that we somehow communicate our intentions to one another. But how do we actually do this? The current paper argues that when we engage in moral responsibility practices—that is, when we express our reactive attitudes by blaming, praising, and resenting—we communicate a desire to maintain good will to those in the community we are imbedded in. Participating in such practices alone will not get the job done, though, for expressions of our reactive attitudes are often what economists call cheap talk. But when we praise and blame in cases of moral diversity, expressions of our reactive attitudes act as costly signals capable of solving our social dilemma.
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Using effect sizes, clinically meaningful moderator effects were found only within the CGH. Greater combat exposure was associated with decreased CGH fractional anisotropy (overall structural integrity) and increased CGH radial diffusivity (perpendicular water diffusivity) among individuals with more severe childhood maltreatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the moderating effect of childhood maltreatment on the relationship between combat exposure and CGH structural integrity. These differences in CGH structural integrity could have maladaptive implications for emotion and memory, as well as provide a potential mechanism by which childhood maltreatment induces vulnerability to later life trauma exposure.
People have natural affinities with the sea and coastlines, using them for work, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment. Interest in coastal areas has increased with growing awareness of environmental sustainability, issues such as natural coastal vulnerability and potential climatic changes, as well as the development of a greater appreciation of impacts on coasts due to urban and industrial development.
In order to make a contribution towards an understanding of the evolution of the South Australian coast and its current changes, and thereby contribute towards its better management, the authors are sharing their coastal knowledge and research. Collectively the contributors, who have been friends and academic collaborators over several decades, have accumulated a vast amount of experience related to the evolution of coastal features of South Australia. From this unique position they have synthesised this information in a manner to make it accessible to students, planners and the general public.
Geologically, the South Australian coast is very young, having evolved only over 1% of geological time, during the past 43 million years since the separation of Australia and Antarctica. It is also very dynamic, with the current shoreline position having been established from only 7000 years ago. There is a remarkable diversity of coastal landscapes in South Australia, ranging through rocky cliffed coasts, submarine canyons, high wave energy sandy beaches and estuarine environments to tidally dominated coasts with sandflats and mangrove woodlands. This diversity of coastal landforms has resulted from the interaction of tides, winds and wave-generated processes operating on a range of rock types impacted by relative movements of the land and sea. Highlighting past changes at the coastline such as erosion, siltation, land movements and fluctuations in sea level provides a sound basis for understanding future changes and instigating appropriate planning strategies. Some features of the South Australian coast have national and global research significance for understanding sea level changes, coastal evolution and management by providing present analogues of past landforms.
The main aim of this book is educational. By explaining the variable character of the coast and its long-term evolution, it is hoped that this book will provide people with background information and awaken curiosity about the coast, enabling them to understand and interpret coastal landscapes, or ‘to read the coastal landscape’.
The coast of metropolitan Adelaide extends from Sellicks Beach in the south to Le Fevre Peninsula in the north (Figure 2.1). Situated in the most populated part of South Australia, the coast provides an excellent example of intense human use of coastal resources, illustrating the impact of urban development and artificial modification of the coast. A lack of understanding about coastal processes during European development has resulted in coastal degradation.
The dominant geological influence on this section of coast is a series of arcuate northeasterly trending faults (Figure 2.2), which extend from the hills and define the landward limit of the coastal plains. Differential faulting of Neoproterozoic to Cambrian strata and Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary rocks has formed the template for the metropolitan coastline. The uplifted zones are associated with prominent cliffs and headlands, while between these uplifted sections of coast, embayments occupy fault angle depressions producing sandy bays. Although important rivers such as the Onkaparinga and the Torrens have their outlets on this section of coast, they deliver minimal sediment to Gulf St Vincent. The exposure of differentially faulted rocks and sediments has provided a north-south sequence of beach compartments.
The geological influences on the coast of metropolitan Adelaide date back to the folded, metamorphosed and uplifted Neoproterozoic and Cambrian strata of the Adelaide Geosyncline, which broadly coincides with the modern Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. Through major crustal deformation events of the Delamerian Orogeny from 514 ± 3 to 490 ± 3 Ma, the region was transformed to an extensive fold mountain range of Himalayan proportions, named the Delamerides. From the Middle Ordovician (c. 470 Ma) through to earliest Permian time (299 Ma), the Delamerides were deeply eroded. The remnants of this major mountain chain influence the overall shape and character of the modern coast. Mainly during Early Permian times (299 to 290 Ma), the region experienced extensive glaciation. Evidence of this glaciation is spectacularly preserved at Hallett Cove, where the ice flow was from the south to the north with bedrock structures diverting the overall southeast-northwest movement (see Chapter Three — The Fleurieu Peninsula coast).
Erosion of the Delamerides continued for millions of years, exposing the core of the mountain range and reducing it to a planation surface of relatively low relief.
The River Murray Estuary is a complex series of waterways comprising Lake Alexandrina, Lake Albert, the Murray Mouth, Coorong Lagoon and the coastal barrier systems of Younghusband and Sir Richard Peninsulas. The region has long been a source of fascination because of its inherent natural beauty, its social and cultural history, and because of the records of explorations by Matthew Flinders, Nicholas Baudin, Charles Sturt, Collet Barker and others. The Coorong became immortalised as the setting for Colin Thiele's novel and film, Storm Boy. Aboriginal people had a finely developed understanding of their environment and occupied the area sustainably for many thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans.
In 1802, Matthew Flinders and Nicholas Baudin, during their charting of the southern Australian coastline, met offshore from the Murray Mouth in Encounter Bay, the outfall of Australia's largest exoreic river system, although neither navigator recognised it. This is not remarkable; they were many kilometres offshore, the coast is low-lying and there were no large freshwater flows containing sediment. Captain Charles Sturt reached the Murray Estuary in 1830 after an intrepid boat trip down the River Murray and was forced to return the same way after his efforts at accessing the sea were thwarted by sand bars in the Goolwa Channel. Hopes were high that the Lower Murray area would support a thriving port and that Goolwa would become the ‘New Orleans of Australia’. However, the mouth could not always be reliably navigated, there was no natural site for a deep-sea port, and the romance of the paddle steamers was finally quashed by the construction of more reliable railways. Today the area has become a focus for conservation, tourism, recreation and retirement.
The arcuate sweeping shoreline of Encounter Bay fringes the seaward margin of the Murray Estuary, stretching from the uplands of the Mount Lofty Ranges towards the southeast (Figure 4.1). It includes part of the longest beach (194 km) in Australia. Unconsolidated sand forms most of the shoreline as long, narrow coastal barriers (Sir Richard and Younghusband Peninsulas) separate the open ocean from the elongate back-barrier lagoons of the Goolwa Channel and Coorong Lagoon. The name 'Coorong’ has been anglicised from the Ngarrindjerii word ‘Kurangh’, which means a long neck of water.
Northern Spencer Gulf encompasses the coastline that extends north from Whyalla to Port Augusta on the eastern Eyre Peninsula and from Port Augusta to Port Broughton on Yorke Peninsula (Figure 8.1). Northern Spencer Gulf is an inverse or negative estuary where evaporation exceeds freshwater input, with salinities (34 to 49 ppt, or parts per thousand) increasing in the northernmost portion of the gulf. Water temperatures are also elevated, ranging between 13 to 28°C. The gulf thus provides a refuge for plants and animals that colonised during warmer water conditions of the past, such as coralline algae near the bridge crossings at Port Augusta. Protected from the ocean swell, these northernmost gulf areas also experience diminished wave heights but amplified tidal ranges. The tidal ranges typical of the gulf are 2.5 to 3 m, but a maximum tidal range of 4.1 m has been recorded at Port Augusta, which is just into the macrotidal range. There are regular dodge tides every two weeks, when for 1 to 2 days there is no tidal movement due to the two main semi-diurnal tides, M2 and S2, cancelling each other out.
Tidal processes dominate the northern Spencer Gulf, and the coastline is characterised by thick seagrass meadows, wide intertidal sandflats, mangrove woodlands and supratidal saline marshland. Coastal development is intimately related to the massive production and accumulation of biogenic materials including algae, seagrass, molluscs and bryozoans; the site is a ‘major carbonate factory’, sequestering much CO2. Algal mats, seagrass meadows and mangrove woodlands are highly productive environments for the growth of rich and diverse marine organisms that promote the rapid accumulation of skeletal, calcareous, bioclastic debris when they die. Intertidal sandflats produce vast numbers of molluscs that also contribute to the vertical accretion and seaward progradation of the shoreline (Figure 8.2). These processes have been enhanced by a fall in relative sea level over the past 5000 years, stranding shell ridges and supratidal flats, which accumulate gypsum, dolomite and salt.
Between Whyalla and Port Augusta, the basic shape of the shoreline reflects bedrock geology; resistant Proterozoic rocks form shore platforms and headlands that shelter sandy bays. From Point Lowly to Port Augusta, the coast is closely aligned with the Torrens Hinge Zone (see Figure 9.1), a major complex fault that separates the eastern side of the Gawler Craton from the rocks of the Adelaide Geosyncline.
This chapter describes the coastline between Port Lincoln and Whyalla, the southern section of the Gulf Coast of Eyre Peninsula; the coast between Whyalla and Port Augusta is included in Chapter Eight on the northern Spencer Gulf shoreline. The eastern, sheltered Gulf Coast of Eyre Peninsula has a subdued morphological character in comparison with the exposed rugged, open ocean Bight Coast due to restrictions on oceanic swell, a much calmer wind and wave regime, and greater tidal influences. This has resulted in less development of modern sand dunes and aeolianite (lithified sand dunes), which on the Bight Coast are widespread and have been eroded into spectacular high cliffs. Ancient coarse crystalline rocks of the Gawler Craton, which underlie Eyre Peninsula and most of the Gulf Coast, have been essentially stable for millions of years. Tectonic deformation has been restricted to widespread uplift of the peninsula as a single unit, with more localised downfaulting near its eastern margin.
The shape and origin of Spencer Gulf is associated with many long-lived basement faults (Figure 9.1). The orientation of the coast southwest to northeast from Port Lincoln to Port Augusta is broadly related to tilted blocks and associated observed and inferred faults expressed in low escarpments. These are up to 70 km long with displacements of 100 to 150 m, separating uplands from coastal plains. Faulting has uplifted parts of the peninsula, such as the Lincoln and Cleve Uplands and the Blue Range, which merge with the eastern coastal plain that provides the backdrop to the coastline. In some locations, such as the shores of Boston Bay, the shoreline closely follows the Lincoln Fault. The faults are oriented to the northeast or to the east, and ancient structural features influence some of them. Faulting is continuing, as revealed by offset of the Late Pleistocene Pooraka Formation; there is also ongoing seismic activity. In places, faults are coincident with the coastline, whereas in others there is only an indirect influence, as the shoreline position is determined by the location of alluvial sediments derived from the fault-bounded uplands.
Most of the coastal plain comprises alluvial deposits overlying resistant Proterozoic rocks, which also produce rocky headlands and help to explain the more detailed character of the coastline (Figure 9.1). Weathering of the resistant rocks has added diversity to the coastline.
South Australia is notable for a remarkable diversity of coastal landscapes, many of which are of national and global significance. Numerous landscape-forming processes have influenced the evolution of this coastline. The current shape of the coastline relates to geological processes operating on a wide range of geological timescales that extend as far back as Archaean time (>2.5 billion years). As well as possessing many scenic wonders, the South Australian coastline presents numerous opportunities for scientific investigators to unravel the evolution of the coastline, with national and international implications.
As the broader continental-scale features of Australia influence the coastal landscapes of South Australia, the coastline should not be viewed in isolation from its hinterland. Australia in many respects is an old, flat and highly denuded continent, with the lowest topographical relief of all continents. Its intra-plate setting, high degree of tectonic stability, regional aridity, inland drainage (up to half the continent) and absence of major mountain ranges have significantly reduced the supply of terrigenous sediment to much of the coastline of South Australia. Few rivers reach the sea along the entire coastline of South Australia. Much of the State's drainage trends inland, and therefore the production of temperate sedimentary carbonates on the surrounding continental shelves is enhanced. Even on the Adelaide Plains, when the principal rivers (Little Para, Gawler, Light, Wakefield) do flow vigorously, their waters tend to temporarily exceed bankfull discharge and flood the adjacent flood plains, rather than reach Gulf St Vincent.
Desert dune fields related to intensified aridity and the latitudinal expansion of the arid zone during successive glacial events4 occur throughout extensive regions of inland Australia and along parts of the coastal margin. At times of glacial low sea level, when South Australia's gulfs were dry land, longitudinal dune fields extended across this broad region. On the northern Adelaide Plains, and to the east of Lake Alexandrina and the northern Coorong Lagoon (Big Desert), as well as on Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, the dunes are very notable features of the regional landscape, sometimes dramatically truncated at the coast. They have contributed to coastal sediments.
The modern coastline: A general overview
The modern coastline was broadly established some 7000 years ago with the culmination of the most recent phase of postglacial sea level rise.