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Given the evidence of multi-parameter risk factors in shaping cognitive outcomes in aging, including sleep, inflammation, cardiometabolism, and mood disorders, multidimensional investigations of their impact on cognition are warranted. We sought to determine the extent to which self-reported sleep disturbances, metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors, cellular inflammation, depressive symptomatology, and diminished physical mobility were associated with cognitive impairment and poorer cognitive performance.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Participants with elevated, well-controlled blood pressure were recruited from the local community for a Tai Chi and healthy-aging intervention study.
One hundred forty-five older adults (72.7 ± 7.9 years old; 66% female), 54 (37%) with evidence of cognitive impairment (CI) based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ≤24, underwent medical, psychological, and mood assessments.
CI and cognitive domain performance were assessed using the MoCA. Univariate correlations were computed to determine relationships between risk factors and cognitive outcomes. Bootstrapped logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of CI risk and linear regression to explore cognitive domains affected by risk factors.
The CI group were slower on the mobility task, satisfied more MetS criteria, and reported poorer sleep than normocognitive individuals (all p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep disturbances, but no other risk factors, predicted increased risk of evidence of CI (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–4.87, 99% CI: 1.08–7.48). Further examination of MoCA cognitive subdomains revealed that sleep disturbances predicted poorer executive function (β = –0.26, 95% CI: –0.51 to –0.06, 99% CI: –0.61 to –0.02), with lesser effects on visuospatial performance (β = –0.20, 95% CI: –0.35 to –0.02, 99% CI: –0.39 to 0.03), and memory (β = –0.29, 95% CI: –0.66 to –0.01, 99% CI: –0.76 to 0.08).
Our results indicate that the deleterious impact of self-reported sleep disturbances on cognitive performance was prominent over other risk factors and illustrate the importance of clinician evaluation of sleep in patients with or at risk of diminished cognitive performance. Future, longitudinal studies implementing a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and objective sleep measurement are warranted to further explore these associations.
While it is increasingly recognized that shame is a pernicious component of the experience of poverty, the stigma generally associated with social assistance provision is less marked with respect to China's Minimum Living Security System, also known as dibao. This enigma is explored and illuminated drawing on two streams of indigenous Chinese scholarship and qualitative fieldwork in eight villages in Shanxi province. Economic and political changes prioritizing economic growth and individual wealth have increased the shame associated with poverty, manifest as loss of face, low mian (status) and lack of lian (integrity). However, this shame does not transfer to dibao because the scheme has been transformed locally into a universal age supplement that partially fulfils the demands of filial piety and which is seen to reflect and contribute to guanxi (social influence).
Taking China as a critical case, this article questions recent literature that asserts that shame attached to poverty is both ubiquitous and always problematic. In China, the concepts of shame, loss of face, lian (integrity) and mian (reputation) once provided an ethical framework under which the existence of poverty both indicated ineffective governance and provided individuals in poverty with opportunities to demonstrate virtuous behaviour in coping with life’s hardships. Maoist rhetoric went further presenting poor peasants as national heroes albeit the outcome of Maoist policies was often to hurt the most disadvantaged most. Subsequent marketisation has transformed poverty into a manifestation of personal failing with poverty-related shame having the same likely negative consequences as found elsewhere.
Radiocarbon (14C or carbon-14, half-life 5730 yr) is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. In particular, the radiological impact of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species has been recognized as a potential issue. Irradiated steels are one of the main sources of carbon-14 in the United Kingdom’s radioactive waste inventory. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the chemical form(s) in which the carbon-14 will be released. The objective of the work was to measure the rate and speciation of carbon-14 release from irradiated 316L(N) stainless steel on leaching under high-pH anoxic conditions, representative of a cement-based near field for low-heat generating wastes. Periodic measurements of carbon-14 releases to both the gas phase and to solution were made in duplicate experiments over a period of up to 417 days. An initial fast release of carbon-14 from the surface of the steel is observed during the first week of leaching, followed by a drop in the rate of release at longer times. Carbon-14 is released primarily to the solution phase with differing fractions released to the gas phase in the two experiments: about 1% of the total release in one and 6% in the other. The predominant dissolved carbon-14 releases are in inorganic form (as 14C-carbonate) but also include organic species. The predominant gas-phase species are hydrocarbons with a smaller fraction of 14CO (which may include some volatile oxygen-containing carbon-species). The experiments are continuing, with final sampling and termination planned after leaching for a total of two years.
Short-term hunter-gatherer residential camps have been a central feature of human settlement patterns and social structure for most of human evolutionary history. Recent analyses of ethnohistoric hunter-gatherer data show that across different environments, the average size of hunter-gatherer bands is remarkably constant and that bands are commonly formed by a small number of coresident families. Using ethnoarchaeological data, we examine the relationship between the physical infrastructure of camps and their social organization. We compiled a dataset of 263 ethnoarchaeologically observed hunter-gatherer camps from 13 studies in the literature. We focus on both the scale of camps, or their average size, structure, and composition, and the dynamics that governed their variation. Using a combination of inferential statistics and linear models, we show that the physical infrastructure of camps, measured by the number of household features, reflects the internal social organization of hunter-gatherer bands. Using scaling analyses, we then show that the variation among individual camps is related to a predictable set of dynamics between camp area, infrastructure, the number of occupants, and residence time. Moreover, the scale and dynamics that set the statistical variance in camp sizes are similar across different environments and have important implications for reconstructing prehistoric hunter-gatherer social organization and behavior from the archaeological record.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including motivational deficits, social withdrawal, poverty of speech, decreased emotional reactivity, and psychomotor retardation, have been shown to be most predictive of functional impairment and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, these symptoms tend not to be responsive to antipsychotic medications. Inflammation could be one mechanism underlying these difficult to treat symptoms. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three cohorts of patients, reflecting different phases of disease, were studied. One cohort was comprised of a sample of patients with deficit schizophrenia (characterized by primary and enduring negative symptoms; n=17), nondeficit patients (n=39), and healthy controls (n=28). ANOVA and multivariate general linear models were used to compare groups, and linear regression models were used to examine relationships between inflammatory cytokines and negative symptoms. The second cohort was comprised of 80 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis from the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study. Linear regression models examined the relationship between baseline inflammatory markers and subsequent negative symptoms at follow-up visits up to 2 years. The third cohort consisted of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) on clozapine (n=10). Correlations were performed to examine relationships between inflammatory markers and negative symptoms. In a subgroup of patients from this third sample, resting state functional connectivity analyses were performed on fMRI data to explore relationships between inflammatory markers and connectivity in brain reward circuitry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In a sample of patients with the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia (n=17), a subtype of the disorder characterized by primary and enduring negative Symptoms, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was significantly increased relative to nondeficit patients (n=39) and healthy controls (n=28; F2,57=3.51, p=0.036), and predicted total negative symptoms (β=0.31, p=0.012), alogia (β=0.30, p=0.024), and blunted affect (β=0.31, p=0.018) items of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale in linear regression models while controlling for antipsychotics. In another sample of individuals at clinical-high risk for psychosis (n=80), baseline concentrations of TNF significantly predicted negative symptoms, including anhedonia, apathy, and loss of interest in linear regression models, at the 6-month (β=0.25, p=0.011) and 12-month follow-up (β=0.39, p=0.001). Interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist also predicted these symptoms at the 6-month follow-up (β=0.21, p=0.037). In a third sample (n=10) of patients with TRS treated with clozapine, IL-1β was correlated with passive/apathetic social withdrawal (r=0.657, p=0.039) and disturbance of volition (r=0.686, p=0.029) items of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the global avolition-apathy scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (r=0.751, p=0.012). Finally, in a small subsample (n=5) of patients from this TRS cohort for whom we collected fMRI data, we found resting-state functional connectivity from a right nucleus accumbens seed to a cluster in medial prefrontal cortex. We found relationships between higher inflammation and decreased connectivity for TNF (r=−0.64) and CRP (r=−0.89). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Taken together, these preliminary data show the predicted relationship between inflammatory markers and negative symptoms and demonstrate the reproducibility of TNF and other monocytic-derived cytokines as reliably elevated in schizophrenia and associated with negative symptoms across samples of patients with schizophrenia and individuals at high risk for psychosis. Cytokines may exert their effects via their impact on brain reward circuitry, and could represent novel treatment targets for motivational deficits and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
A study was conducted to evaluate the response of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant (GDT) soybean and weed control from cover crop different termination intervals before and after soybean planting. Cover crop biomass was highest when terminated at planting, decreased with the 7- and 14-d preplant (DPP) and day-after-planting (DAP) timings, and again at the 14 DPP and DAP timings. Glyphosate+dicamba provided total control of cover crops by 21 DAP. Cover crop termination timing did not influence soybean population or yield. Palmer amaranth control at the 21 and 28 d after termination (DAT) was 97% to 99%. Differences in Palmer amaranth control were not detected among herbicide programs or termination intervals at the end of season rating, and all treatments provided ≥97% control. Although differences in Palmer amaranth control were not apparent at the end of the season, the delay in cover crop affected the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. When utilizing a wheat+hairy vetch cover crop in DGT soybeans, producers should delay cover crop termination until 11 to 14 DPP and make at least one POST application of glyphosate+dicamba+an additional herbicide mode of action (MOA) to maximize Palmer amaranth control and soybean yields.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Integrated weed management (IWM) became an accepted, and frequently used, term by weed scientists in the early 1970's. It has been argued by some that IWM is simply new terminology for a system that was previously called “weed control”. In any event, the acceptance of the “management concept” has assured the grower that chemicals for weed control are merely a component part of a total system for managing weeds in crops (9, 65).
Peter Townsend argued that poverty could be scientifically measured as a ‘breakpoint’ within the income distribution below which participation collapses. This paper stands on Townsend's shoulders in measuring the level of poverty and participation by: (1) broadening his original measurement of participation; (2) using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in conjunction with a new dataset including 40,000 households (Understanding Society, 2011; 2013); and (3) taking into account the multi-cultural/ethnic nature of British society. We find that participation – defined as lack of deprivation, social participation and trust – reduces as income falls but stops doing so among the poorest 30 per cent of individuals. This may be indicating a minimum level of participation, a floor rather than a ‘breakpoint’ as suggested by Townsend, which has to be sustained irrespective of how low income is. Respondents with an ethnic minority background manifest lower levels of participation than white respondents but the relationship has a less linear pattern. Moreover, the floor detected for the overall population is also replicated when combining all respondents from ethnic groups.
We observed a sample of zero proper-motion stars (μ < 0.″50 cent−1) from a field previously studied by Suntzeff et al. (1986). This field is 2°.5 NW (2.6 kpc) of the center of the SMC. We obtained spectra for ~ 40 stars in the region of the Ca II infrared triplet using the CTIO Argus fiber-fed spectrograph. We also obtained Argus echelle spectra of a single order at 6300Å with R = 18000 in one run. The low-dispersion spectra were reduced to metallicities based on the Ca II equivalent widths using the Da Costa & Armandroff (1995) technique and the metallicity scale from Zinn & West (1984). The typical abundance error is 0.12 dex. For half the sample, we have echelle velocities which are accurate to 1.5 km s−1. For the rest of the sample, the low-dispersion data yield single-observation velocities accurate to about 5 km s−1 based on repeat observations.
Narrow-band classification photometry, on a six-color system that measures near-infrared bands of TiO and CN, has been obtained for a set of red supergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud. To investigate the effects of metallicity on the band-strength indices, comparisons are made to supergiants in the LMC and the Galaxy. Two new variable stars are reported.
Objectives: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Methods: Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results: MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions: Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 412–425)
The search for alternative earth abundant semiconducting nanocrystals for sustainable energy applications has brought forth the need for nanoscale syntheses beyond bulk synthesis routes. Of particular interest are metal phosphides and derivative I–V–VI chalcogenides including copper phosphide (Cu3P) and copper thiophosphate (Cu3PS4). Herein, we report a one-pot, solution-based synthesis of Cu3P nanocrystals utilizing an in situ phosphorus source: phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in trioctylphosphine. By injecting this phosphorus source into a copper solution in oleylamine, uniform and size controlled Cu3P nanocrystals with a phosphorous-rich surface are synthesized. The subsequent reaction of the Cu3P nanocrystals with decomposing thiourea forms nanoscale Cu3PS4 particles having p-type conductivity and an effective optical band gap of 2.36 eV. The synthesized Cu3PS4 produces a cathodic photocurrent during photoelectrochemical measurements, demonstrating its application as a light-absorbing material. Our process creates opportunities to explore other solution-based metal-phosphorus systems and their subsequent sulfurization for earth abundant, alternative energy materials.