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White matter (WM) impairments have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and those at high familial risk of developing BD. However, the distribution of these impairments has not been well characterized. Few studies have examined WM integrity in young people early in the course of illness and in individuals at familial risk who have not yet passed the peak age of onset.
WM integrity was examined in 63 BD subjects, 150 high-risk (HR) individuals and 111 participants with no family history of mental illness (CON). All subjects were aged 12 to 30 years.
This young BD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy within the genu of the corpus callosum (CC) compared with the CON and HR groups. Moreover, the abnormality in the genu of the CC was also present in HR participants with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 16) compared with CON participants.
Our findings provide important validation of interhemispheric abnormalities in BD patients. The novel finding in HR subjects with recurrent MDD – a group at particular risk of future hypo/manic episodes – suggests that this may potentially represent a trait marker for BD, though this will need to be confirmed in longitudinal follow-up studies.
Fronto-limbic structural brain abnormalities have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but findings in individuals at increased genetic risk of developing BD have been inconsistent. We conducted a study in adolescents and young adults (12–30 years) comparing measures of fronto-limbic cortical and subcortical brain structure between individuals at increased familial risk of BD (at risk; AR), subjects with BD and controls (CON). We separately examined cortical volume, thickness and surface area as these have distinct neurodevelopmental origins and thus may reflect differential effects of genetic risk.
We compared fronto-limbic measures of grey and white matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area in 72 unaffected-risk individuals with at least one first-degree relative with bipolar disorder (AR), 38 BD subjects and 72 participants with no family history of mental illness (CON).
The AR group had significantly reduced cortical thickness in the left pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) compared with the CON group, and significantly increased left parahippocampal gyral volume compared with those with BD.
The finding of reduced cortical thickness of the left pars orbitalis in AR subjects is consistent with other evidence supporting the IFG as a key region associated with genetic liability for BD. The greater volume of the left parahippocampal gyrus in those at high risk is in line with some prior reports of regional increases in grey matter volume in at-risk subjects. Assessing multiple complementary morphometric measures may assist in the better understanding of abnormal developmental processes in BD.
Two techniques were used to apply a thin layer of selenium to GaAs (100) surfaces: (a) the thermal decomposition of hydrogen selenide at 120°C, and (b) the deposition of gaseous selenium formed in the reaction of hydrogen atoms with H2Se. Angle dependent XPS measurements show that AsxSey, but not GaxSey, forms on the surface in both cases. This work therefore establishes a surface behavior for selenium on GaAs(100) which contrasts with that described earlier for sulfur on this surface.
Fluoroboron (BF2+) ion implantation into silicon is frequently used for fabrication of shallow junctions. For scaling down of the junction dimensions, one of the efficient approaches is to lower the implantation energy. This work reports fluoroboron ion interactions with (100) oriented silicon at 10 to 500 eV ion energy. Ion bombardment was carried out using a mass-separated BF2+ ion beam in an ultrahigh vacuum low energy ion beam system. The temperature of the silicon crystal during bombardment was kept either at room temperature or 500°C. The reactions (both etching and incorporation) were characterized by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and Raman scattering. The results show that BF2+ ions dissociated on the silicon surface at an energy as low as 10 eV and most of fluorine segregated to the surface and desorbed. Both the physical and chemical etching rate of the beam were energy dependent but much lower than the accumulation rate. For beam fluences higher than 1 × 1018/cm2, continuous amorphous boron films were deposited on silicon.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron diffraction, and S K edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure were used to characterize the air-stable S-passivated InP(100)-(lxl) surface prepared in (NH4)2S solution. The results show that one monolayer of sulphur which is bonded only to In is adsorbed on the surface. The S is found to occupy bridge-bonded sites, and the orientation of the In-S bond is determined to be in the  azimuth, with an In-S-In bridge-bond angle of about 100°.
Variable energy positron annihilation and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy have been used to investigate the evolution of secondary defects during the annealing of self-ion irradiated silicon. Evidence supporting the existence of both vacancy- and interstitially-based defects after high temperature anneals is presented. Dopant type and irradiation temperature have both been shown to influence the structure of the defects whose onset can be manipulated via the implantation flux.
In this paper we illustrate the use of Ultra Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (USXAS) for the characterization of polymeric materials by highlighting three novel applications of the technique. The surface sensitivity of electron yield (3 nm) and the bulk information available from fluorescence yield USXAS (200 nm) provide unique information on the chemistry of polymer surfaces and interfaces. USXAS is sensitive to both concentration and orientation of functional groups in polymers. The systems highlighted here include the characterization of flame treated model acrylic automotive coatings, ultra-low surface energy crosslinked fluorocarbon films, and spin cast polystyrene films. The chemical and surface sensitivity of the technique are emphasized by the ability of USXAS to detect an increase in the trigonally coordinated carbon at the surface after treatment with a reducing flame. The sensitivity to functional group orientation at the surface is demonstrated by the characterization of the crosslinked flurocarbon polymer films. The results show that the pendant fluoroalkyl moieties of these polymers are strongly oriented perpendicular to the film surface. Spin coated polystyrene films were characterized as a functionv of molecular weight, film thickness and casting solvent. The pendant phenyl groups were found to be preferentially oriented towards the normal to the surface plane, independent of casting solvent, molecular weight, and film thickness
In the movie Duck Soup, the Marx Brothers Harpo and Groucho come upon each other, face to face. There would have been a mirror between them, but Harpo, in his attempt to avoid being seen by Groucho whom he had been impersonating, ran into it and broke it. The two men look alike; to avoid detection, Harpo imitates Groucho's movements to make it appear that Groucho is seeing himself in a mirror. Testing the “mirror” image, Groucho performs a series of bizarre actions that Harpo imitates simultaneously, thereby supporting the ridiculous conclusion that Groucho is indeed looking in a mirror. The sequence nicely illustrates the similarities between bodily imitation and mirror images. In both, actions of one entity closely mimic the actions of another, such that a resemblance is apparent. Consequently, it seems reasonable to expect that the same processes that allow someone to imitate another person's actions (or to recognize that one's actions are being imitated) might also be useful in determining that the image in the mirror is oneself.
Remarkably, the first explicit recognition of the similarity between bodily imitation and mirror-self-recognition was quite recent, in 1925 by French psychologist Paul Guillaume, in his book about the imitative development of his daughters. Guillaume (1926/1971, p. 152) argued “We must not hesitate to connect this exceptional mirror experiment [i.e., the child's infrequent interactions with mirrors] with the experience of normal imitation. Other adults and also other children in the society in which he lives are for the infant the natural mirror that reflects for him his own image when he proceeds to imitate.”
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.