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The aggregation of neurocognitive deficits among the non-psychotic first-degree relatives of adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia patients suggests that there may be a common etiology for these deficits in childhood- and adult-onset illness. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the presentation of neurobiological abnormalities, and whether there are differences in the extent of familial transmission for specific domains of cognitive function has not been systematically addressed.
We employed variance components analysis, as implemented in SOLAR-Eclipse, to evaluate the evidence of familial transmission for empirically derived composite scores representing attention, working memory, verbal learning, verbal retention, and memory for faces. We contrast estimates for adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia families and matched community control pedigrees, and compare our findings to previous reports based on analogous neurocognitive assessments.
We observed varying degrees of familial transmission; attention and working memory yielded comparable, significant estimates for adult-onset and community control pedigrees; verbal learning was significant for childhood-onset and community control pedigrees; and facial memory demonstrated significant familial transmission only for childhood-onset schizophrenia. Model-fitting analyses indicated significant differences in familiality between adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia for attention, working memory, and verbal learning.
By comprehensively assessing a wide range of neurocognitive domains in adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia families, we provide additional support for specific neurocognitive domains as schizophrenia endophenotypes. Whereas comparable estimates of familial transmission for certain dimensions of cognitive functioning support a shared etiology of adult- and childhood-onset neurocognitive function, observed differences may be taken as preliminary evidence of partially divergent multifactorial architectures.
Public support is usually a precondition for the adoption and successful implementation of costly policies. We argue that such support is easier to achieve with policy-packages that incorporate primary and ancillary measures. We specifically distinguish command-and-control and market-based measures as primary measures and argue that the former will usually garner more public support than the latter given the low-visibility tendency of costs associated with command-and-control measures. Nevertheless, if included in a policy-package, ancillary measures are likely to increase public support by reducing negative effects of primary measures. Based on a choice experiment with a representative sample of 2,034 Swiss citizens, we assessed these arguments with respect to political efforts to reduce vehicle emissions. The empirical analysis supported the argument that policy-packaging affects public support positively, particularly generating more support when ancillary measures are added. Lastly, we ultimately observe that command-and-control measures obtain more public support than market-based instruments.
While it is impossible to summarize the findings of this book, a few observations, points of interest, can be made. First of all, a few words on the customary law status of the modes of liability and inchoate concepts of liability that we discuss.
Commission is a well-established form of liability in ICL. In the Tadić Appeal Judgment, the ICTY confirmed that commission is first and foremost ‘the physical perpetration … by the offender himself’. Additionally, multiple other forms of commission exist, some of which do not necessarily require that a perpetrator commit a physical offence directly.
Criminal responsibility for contributing to a group acting with a common purpose is a key – yet controversial – issue in ICL. On the one hand, it is well-known that international crimes are normally committed by groups of people acting pursuant to joint plans or agreements. This calls for liability theories that establish responsibility based on the accused’s participation in a collective criminal effort. On the other hand, the principles of individual criminal responsibility and personal guilt proscribe the attribution of crimes committed by others to the accused merely because of his/her membership in a group or organization.
Historically, aiding and abetting, as such, was not included in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal or the Charter of the Tokyo Tribunal. Rather, Control Council Law No. 10 first provided for the criminal prosecution of persons who were ‘accessor[ies] to the commission of any … crime or ordered or abetted the same’. Oddly, aiding and abetting was also not explicitly included in the 1950 Nuremberg Principles or the 1954 ILC Draft Code of Crimes – in both documents ‘complicity’ is employed – but it reappeared in Article 3(2) of the 1991 ILC Draft Code of Crimes and in Article 2(3)(d) of the 1996 ILC Draft Code of Crimes. Nonetheless, it is now consistently found in the Statutes of all modern international criminal tribunals.
Command responsibility, as a modern doctrine of criminal law, originates in the atrocities committed by members of the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines between 9 October 1944 and 2 September 1945. That the atrocities – starvation, execution, rape and burning of homes – violated the laws of war is uncontroversial. More controversial, and of enduring doctrinal interest, was the potential individual responsibility of General Yamashita, Commanding General of the Imperial Army’s Fourteenth Group prior to his surrender to US forces.
Despite recent developments, prosecuting attempts to commit international crimes have typically been rare at the international level. The infrequency of prosecution can be explained by several factors. Some scholars have argued that attempt liability for war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide might not have met the ‘seriousness requirement’ in order to be brought within the ICTY and the ICTR’s respective jurisdictions or might not ‘have implicated the collective considerations of peace and security that animated the creation of the tribunals in first instance’. Moreover, according to Schabas, prosecuting attempted international crimes was not entirely necessary since international courts and tribunals were generally established ex post facto, that is once such crimes have already been committed.
This chapter examines the concept of co-perpetration, as defined and developed in the jurisprudence of the ICC. To this end, the research contained herein is divided into two separate, yet interrelated, parts that focus on the two distinct forms of co-perpetration, which the Court has recognized in its case law: ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ co-perpetration.
Consultation-liaison psychiatry started in the 1930s when the deinstitutionalisation process allowed the development of new types of psychiatric interventions in primary care and general hospitals. Consultation-liaison is an operational model defined by the environmental and institutional context of practice. It developed progressively as a sub-specialty of psychiatry and gained its own specificity in terms of clinical practice, organisation of care, training and research. More recently and following a similar process, old age psychiatry has developed as another subspecialty in psychiatry, with a scope based on the targeted population of older individuals. Consultation-liaison in old age psychiatry consequently emerged from this double development of consultation-liaison psychiatry and old age psychiatry.
Presently, many of the greatest debates and controversies in international criminal law concern modes of liability for international crimes. The state of the law is unclear, to the detriment of accountability for major crimes and of the uniformity of international criminal law. The present book aims at clarifying the state of the law and provides a thorough analysis of the jurisprudence of international courts and tribunals, as well as of the debates and the questions these debates have left open. Renowned international criminal law scholars analyze, in discrete chapters, the modes of liability one by one; for each mode they identify the main trends in the jurisprudence and the main points of controversy. An introduction addresses the cross-cutting issues, and a conclusion anticipates possible evolutions that we may see in the future. The research on which this book is based was undertaken with the Geneva Academy.
Engineering Changes (ECs) are substantial elements of the design process of technical products and are in particular relevant for companies due to enormous additional costs and time delays they can cause. In order to better understand ECs and realize efficient Engineering Change Management (ECM), different approaches exist. One aspect of ECM are change propagation analysis, which try to analyze knock-on effects of an EC on other product elements or the development process. How ECs can propagate is in particular difficult to assess for complex products realized within different engineering domains (mechanical, electrical and software engineering). To address this challenge, ECs are classified, strategies to cope with ECs are presented and change propagation approaches are analyzed in this paper. Thereby a lack of indicators for cross-domain propagation is identified. To overcome this issue, the distinction of domain-specific and cross-domain linkage types is proposed and a set of linkage types is presented. Further research is motivated to integrate these linkage types in product models while also considering processes and organizational structures as additional dimensions of ECM.